Flooring is the general term for a permanent covering of a floor , or for the work of installing such a floor covering. Floor covering is a term to generically describe any finish material applied over a floor structure to provide a walking surface. Both terms are used interchangeably but floor covering refers more to loose-laid materials. Materials almost always classified as flooring include carpet , laminate , tile , and vinyl.
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Low-rise commercial, institutional, and industrial buildingsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Showcasing technologies in industrial concrete flooring [construction]
The aim of this article is to highlight the requirements that may exist for a given building project, and indicate how these requirements should drive the designer towards the most appropriate and cost effective choice of floor system.
The range of steel based floor systems is presented in general terms, with the advantages and disadvantages of each system identified so that these can be compared against the requirements of a given project. The article does not go into technical detail about the different types of composite , long span , and shallow floor solutions. Different buildings have different requirements, so not surprisingly there is no 'one size fits all' most appropriate solution.
Clearly the requirements vary depending on the type of use, but there are also some more subtle issues to consider and these are highlighted below. It should not be forgotten that when considering intended use, it may be appropriate to pay attention to a different use in the future - many steel solutions offer flexibility that can result in high levels of sustainability over the lifetime of a building.
As a rule of thumb designers should adopt the simplest solution that will meet the project requirements. Generally speaking the simplest solution will also be the most common, and familiarity will facilitate the design , fabrication and erection processes as no new learning is involved.
Within the context of steel floor systems, simple also means less labour and cost. For example, the simplest solution of a downstand solid web I-section beam as opposed to a truss means; fewer structural elements, less fabrication , fewer surfaces to be fire protected and less time to design.
It is worth adding that this 'simple is best' philosophy also extends to frames as a whole - a simple braced frame will normally be a more economical solution than, say, a moment resisting frame. For some projects the need to reduce to a minimum the construction time on site may play a determining role.
Indeed, time is often one of the key drivers for choosing a steel solution. The need for speed may be driven by, for example, fitting in with vacation breaks for educational buildings , or bringing in income e. It can lead to consideration of options that minimise wet trades on site use of precast floor units , minimise the number of crane lifts and provide working platforms during construction profiled steel decking , and that do not require propping between floors.
The volume of services needed in a building is clearly a function of the end use - hospitals being an obvious example of a highly serviced building - and design philosophy adopted by the services engineer, e. When a lot of service ducts are to be accommodated it may be beneficial to adopt a floor solution that provides a flat soffit in order to maximise the flexibility in routing these ducts beneath the structural floor.
Solutions that provide a flat soffit don't also allow long spans. So an alternative in a building that is both highly serviced and requires long-span floors is to integrate the services within the beam depth as shown to the right , so that the total depth of structural floor plus service zone is minimised. One of the long-recognised benefits of steel frame construction has been its ability to span significant distances.
This is particularly true when composite solutions are adopted, given the efficiencies of that form of construction. This spanning ability allows the number of internal load bearing walls and columns to be minimised - open floor spaces can be created, or non load-bearing partitions that are easily moved used to form temporary individual areas.
Adaptability may be more sustainable than the currently fashionable topic of deconstruction , for which steel is also suited. In recent years a number of steel framed office buildings have been reconfigured to provide residential units. Long span solutions may not then be the most appropriate solution for certain situations, rather a short span design for example using shallow floors with an internal atrium may provide a more appropriate internal environment.
The designer must seek the best compromise. If false ceilings are used then the aesthetics of the soffit of a given structural floor system are clearly irrelevant. However, a number of clients have recently been looking for exposed soffits, exposed primarily so that the thermal mass of the floor is exposed.
The soffit must also then be visually appealing. In some cases the presence of downstand beams interrupting the soffit may not be welcome, although it is also true that an expressed structure may be desired. A number of steel framed options may therefore be appropriate depending on specific requirements. The speed with which they can be constructed, combined with excellent performance in service, was one of the reasons why steel frames with composite floors played such a central role in the boom in the multi-storey office market in the UK in the late s and s.
When designers wished to transfer this technology to residential buildings some years later, it was recognised that possibly the biggest difference in requirements was issues associated with acoustics. Good detailing is needed to avoid flanking issues, where sound travels around a barrier such as a floor by passing through an adjoining wall. An example, in accordance with the guidance provided in SCI P , is shown below.
The SCI has also developed an acoustic performance prediction tool for separating floors and walls to assist designers and architects. Numerous apartment buildings have now been constructed using steel frames, with a combination of good detailing and proprietary products used for raised floors, etc providing the necessary levels of performance. Deansgate in Manchester was an early example of this 'technology transfer' see right.
Fire resistance requirements depend on the use and height number of storeys of a building. The most common solution adopted to provide fire resistance is to protect the steel members so that they remain at a sufficiently low temperature recognising that some loss of steel strength as temperature increases is acceptable as loads in fire are less than ambient loading.
Intumescent coatings , paint like substances that expand with temperature to provide an insulation layer , are often used. If the steel elements are embedded in concrete this can provide the necessary insulation.
Other options include board protection and the use of a cementitious spray. Alternatively, when a 'fire engineering' approach is adopted the steel members are designed so that they are sufficiently strong, even when material strength has been lost due to exposure to fire, to resist the appropriate levels of loading. Extensive guidance, based on full scale fire testing of complete buildings, is available SCI P Provision of sufficient thermal mass is an important part of a low energy building solution.
The mass provides a heat sink that absorbs heat during the day, and then in combination with natural ventilation the heat is purged during the cooler night time. Composite floor slabs may even be constructed with integral water ducts to aid this purging. It is important that the thermal mass is exposed - so false ceilings may be a problem, as is plasterboard attached with dabs to otherwise massive walls.
Horizontal elements floors are much more effective at providing mass than vertical elements. When deciding how much mass is needed it is important to consider the occupation pattern of a building. Massive structures can absorb a lot of heat, but they also provide inertia when wanting a building to heat up rapidly. There is a common misconception that a very massive building is best.
Stiffness is needed to ensure that a floor behaves correctly from a dynamic point of view, thereby assuring user comfort. This is a complex subject, as the real issue is how the floor responds in terms of acceleration , and that is a function of a number of variables including stiffness and the mass that is mobilised.
The traditional approach, which is recognised as being crude, for designing a floor to respond acceptably is to check its natural frequency and compare that with a limiting value which is a function of the floor mass.
A more thorough approach is recommended, which often yields good, i. See SCI P A web-based Floor response calculator is also available that allows designers to make an immediate assessment of the dynamic response of a floor solution. The software reports the results of approximately 19, arrangements of floor grid , loading and bay size, which have been investigated using finite element analysis.
The software may be used to examine complete floor plans or part floor plans, comparing alternative beam arrangements. Some uses are less tolerant to floor movements e.
Some uses e. There has been considerable debate in recent years about deconstruction. The ability to dismantle a building and use the components again elsewhere is clearly attractive from a sustainability point of view, and steel lends itself to such a solution. There are some logistical issues associated with this approach how do you find the 'used' component that meets your needs , but these can no doubt be overcome given the right drivers.
There may also be issues to do with efficient use of materials - tying materials together into composite forms of construction makes the most of the different attributes of the individual materials, but may make them more difficult to separate for re-use.
Deconstruction will certainly be on the agenda in future. As noted above, unless project specific drivers suggest the adoption of a more sophisticated alternative, then the simplest solution should be chosen and this will normally prove to be the most cost effective.
Cost is a fundamental consideration in the selection of the frame and floor system. The cost comparison studies illustrate that for a range of building types, on a like for like basis steel frame and floor solutions are highly competitive. The studies also highlighted the importance of considering total building cost not just structural frame cost, as the choice of the structural frame and floor configuration will have associated impacts on many other elements, including the substructure, roof and external cladding.
Composite slabs , comprising lightly reinforced concrete cast on profiled steel decking , are an option whether the beams are downstand or integrated within the slab depth for a shallow floor form of construction.
The slabs are normally reinforced using an upper layer of mesh and, occasionally, additional bars in the troughs usually for longer periods of fire resistance and heavy loads.
Fibre reinforcement may also be used. Spans of up to 4. Composite slabs are an excellent choice when speed of construction is important. Bundles of decking are lifted into place on the steel structure, for distribution by hand. The number of crane lifts needed, when compared with the precast alternative, is greatly reduced. The ability to stack the pieces of decking into bundles also reduces transport time and costs.
During construction , once in place the decking provides other benefits in terms of acting as a working platform for storage of materials. When appropriately orientated and fixed to the steel beams it can restrain them against lateral torsional buckling. In the final state the ribs in the decking serve as void formers in the slab, thereby reducing the weight of floor construction with the knock-on benefits this can have.
It is also possible to suspend services from the soffit of a composite slab, using anchors that are designed to slot into the decking profile. A number of methods can be used for controlling the concrete level during construction. Basically, the concrete depth may be kept constant, or the upper surface may be kept level. Depending which of these is chosen the weight of concrete will vary, so it is important that the designer communicates clearly with the site team.
Further guidance on the installation of metal decking is also available. When an exposed soffit is required - to expose thermal mass - a thermally transparent suspended ceiling may be used. The additional surface area of the soffit created by the decking as opposed to a flat concrete face can be beneficial. Precast concrete units may be used in conjunction with steel beams. The units may be solid or hollow-core, and with tapered or bluff ends.
They are normally prestressed. The beams may also be structurally connected to the slab units to make them 'composite', provided specific detailing rules are satisfied to ensure that the steel section and concrete in-situ topping plus the precast units act together.
SCI P gives further information on this. Floors using precast units offer a number of benefits. The spanning ability of the units is such that the spacing of secondary beams can be increased compared to when traditional decking profiles are used. The units provide a flat soffit. For semi-exposed applications, such as car parks , precast units may be a more durable alternative than steel decking although with the correct detailing and coatings it is certainly possible to use decking in such applications.
The size of buildings in the commercial, institutional, and industrial market segment ranges from a few hundred to as much as 45, square metres , square feet. All of these buildings have public access and exit requirements, although their populations may differ considerably in density. The unit costs are generally higher than those for dwellings although those of simple industrial buildings may be lower , and this type includes buildings with the highest unit cost, such as hospitals and laboratories. Residential buildings are fairly static in their function, changing only at long intervals. By contrast, most commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings must respond to fairly rapid changes in their functions, and a degree of flexibility is required in their component systems.
Epoxy floor coatings are commonly used for commercial and industrial flooring. Epoxy coatings are normally applied over concrete floors to provide a high-performance, smooth, and durable surface that can last many years and withstand heavy loads. Many industrial sites, warehouses, and commercial buildings rely on epoxy floors to maintain clean and safe conditions for workers, equipment, and inventory. An epoxy coating requires a clean and slightly porous surface to adhere properly. Epoxy may not bond to sealed or polished concrete.
New Concrete — as a guide, new concrete should be left for four weeks to dry in the summer and six in the winter. We also offer additional specialty services which include floor joint repair, joint leveling, trip hazard remediation, and slab stabilization. If your basement floor gets damp when it rains, in the spring, or is damp all year long there is one company that has a way of waterproofing basement floors and walls that might be just what you're looking for. Concrete Flooring Excessive Moisture Issues Concrete flooring excessive moisture can lead to early failure of surface coating and the concrete slab itself. Use on concrete flooring. Use of the correct waterproofing system to prevent moisture transfer into coatings and degradation of the slab.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Step by step Epoxy Floor [Case Study]: How to apply from start to finish (2018)
A single component, moisture-cured resin, containing a proprietary blend of micaceous iron oxide and zinc to function as a primer which is field and shop friendly. May be used in OEM manufacturing, potable water and wastewater immersion with the proper topcoats. May also be used for marginally prepared rusty steel and tightly adhering old coatings for non-immersion maintenance situations. High gloss industrial enamel offering good flow, hiding and protection for recommended surfaces in mild to moderately severe exposures. Not for use on surfaces that are continually wet or sweat frequently. A low VOC, high solids, high gloss industrial enamel offering good flow, hiding and protection for recommended surfaces in mild to moderately severe exposures. Chemically active, rust-inhibitive primer for ferrous metals. Provides extended weathering for shop and field priming of structural and miscellaneous steel.
How to Damp Proof Concrete Floors
The aim of this article is to highlight the requirements that may exist for a given building project, and indicate how these requirements should drive the designer towards the most appropriate and cost effective choice of floor system. The range of steel based floor systems is presented in general terms, with the advantages and disadvantages of each system identified so that these can be compared against the requirements of a given project. The article does not go into technical detail about the different types of composite , long span , and shallow floor solutions. Different buildings have different requirements, so not surprisingly there is no 'one size fits all' most appropriate solution.
B01 - Index. CO1 - Index. E01 Index. F01 Index. Preface : This reference guide covers acceptable conditions including substrate surface requirements for floor covering work included in the NFCA Reference Manual. Individuals using this guide should verify all site conditions and manufacturers requirements relative to the particular project. In the later case, the Owner is to provide acceptable surfaces and conditions unless otherwise mutually agreed to between both parties. Testing for moisture and alkalinity shall be done by an independent third party agency in a timely manner. Test results must show acceptable conditions within manufacturer's moisture and alkalinity limits before commencement of any flooring work.
FLOOR SCREEDS & TOPPINGS
They are designed for a floor service life time in excess of 30 years, so the durability of the protection for these assets is a very important requirement. Every nonscheduled down time for essential repairs or maintenance means a serious financial loss to the plant. It is always essential to ensure that the strength of the flooring system is able to accommodate the stresses generated over floor. This includes the mechanicalandchemical resistance, plus ease of cleaning,and dust prevention etc. The flooring is most operational part of any Industrial, Commercial, Residential or Institutional buildings. In addition, the problems of poor design, poor construction, low standards of maintenance and repair, or a combination of all three reduces the floor design life. In this high demanding industrial environment, concrete surface fails. Also concrete substrate is porous in nature thus when water, oil and other fluids enter into concrete, the reinforcing steel corrodes. Tosustain and maintain the industrial floor a protection ismust. The toughness and durability of the hygienic coating along with choice of attractive colors suits to variety of environmental conditions.
Concrete Floor Waterproofing
Find the product that best meets your needs. Select from any or all of the dropdowns below to narrow your search. Send a message with your questions or. With over 95 years in business, Stonhard is the unprecedented leader in manufacturing and installing high performance epoxy and urethane floor, wall and lining systems. Stonhard's seamless, long-wearing and easy-to-clean systems are engineered to perform in both industrial and commercial environments without sacrificing design innovative vision. We work with you directly — formulating and installing long-term floor, wall and lining system solutions for industrial and commercial environments. Chemical, slip and stain resistant epoxy, urethane and MMA floors protect work environments from chemical attack, impact, abrasion, thermal cycling, along with daily wear and tear. Market specific colour collections, tailor-made logos, custom colours and textures that dignify great design.
Pu Flooring In Uae
Precast Concrete Slabs Cost. Hollowcore floors are used due to their lower cost and quick erection installation time. Hollowcore concrete slab is a versatile precast element. Average conditions are considered in the following piling costs.
The claim is always that their old garage door did not have a gap. In addition to introducing and developing many advanced concrete floor technologies, our members have also installed hundreds of millions of square feet of concrete floors for commercial. A-1 Concrete Leveling of Ann Arbor is fully insured; we are so confident of providing the highest quality service that we back every concrete leveling job with a four-year warranty.
Pu Flooring In Uae. DURAL — Profiles, Systems, Solutions Modern profiles and profiles for parquet, laminate, fitted carpets and design surfaces, straightforward systems for barrier-free showers, and matting systems for sealing, decoupling, and insulation of flooring — we are the specialist. Definitely where top performance is important. Most of people spending in free times in their summer houses or in big shopping malls.
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