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What Is A Piping SystemVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How A Mega Ship Diesel Engine Are Made
As a result of the progressive implantation of the Industry 4. Therefore, the application of the principles of Industry 4. Due to this, Navantia, one of the 10 largest shipbuilders in the world, is updating its whole inner workings to keep up with the near-future challenges that a Shipyard 4. Such challenges can be divided into three groups: the vertical integration of production systems, the horizontal integration of a new generation of value creation networks, and the re-engineering of the entire production chain, making changes that affect the entire life cycle of each piece of a ship.
Pipes, which exist in a huge number and varied typology on a ship, are one of the key pieces, and its monitoring constitutes a prospective cyber-physical system.
Their improved identification, traceability, and indoor location, from production and through their life, can enhance shipyard productivity and safety. In order to perform such tasks, this article first conducts a thorough analysis of the shipyard environment.
From this analysis, the essential hardware and software technical requirements are determined. Next, the concept of smart pipe is presented and defined as an object able to transmit signals periodically that allows for providing enhanced services in a shipyard.
In order to build a smart pipe system, different technologies are selected and evaluated, concluding that passive and active RFID Radio Frequency Identification are currently the most appropriate technologies to create it. Furthermore, some promising indoor positioning results obtained in a pipe workshop are presented, showing that multi-antenna algorithms and Kalman filtering can help to stabilize Received Signal Strength RSS and improve the overall accuracy of the system.
After the triumph of the lean production systems in the s, the outsourcing manufacturing phenomenon of the s, and the automation that took off in the s, the fourth major disruption in modern manufacturing is Industry 4.
This industrial revolution can be defined as the next phase in the digitalization of the sector [ 1 ], driven by several emerging technologies: the ubiquitous use of sensors, the stunning rise in data volume, the increasing computational power, and connectivity; the emergence of analytics, cloud computing and business-intelligence capabilities; new forms of human-machine interaction such as augmented-reality systems; and advances in transferring digital instructions to the physical world, such as Cyber-Physical Systems CPS , Internet of Things IoT , robotics, and 3-D printing.
Most of these technologies are mature and they have been present for some time. Although some of them are not yet ready for a broader application, many are now at a position where their greater reliability and cost-effectiveness are starting to be appealing for industrial applications.
In the short-term, Industry 4. The foundations of the Industry 4. Products, resources, and business and engineering processes are deeply integrated making production operate in a flexible, efficient, and green way with constant real-time quality control, and cost advantages in comparison with traditional production systems.
Machinery and equipment will have the ability to improve processes through self-optimization and autonomous decision-making. Shipbuilders face the same challenges as industry [ 3 ], which can be classified into three main concerns: the vertical integration of production systems, the horizontal integration of a new generation of networks that create added-value, and the acceleration of technologies that require the re-engineering of the entire production chain.
The vertical integration of production systems changes naval production chains. It entrusts the intelligent shipyards to ensure safe production. The smart ships, more environmental friendly, are capable of operating in network together with other ships and ground infrastructure. The horizontal integration of a new generation of value creation networks is critical as it provides an integrated way to satisfy the demands from the different stakeholders, allowing for the customization of ships in a short period of time.
The third challenge is the end-to-end digital integration of engineering across the entire value chain, ranging from design to after-sales service. The aim of these technologies is, primarily, to allow shipyards to collect more data and make better use of it, for example:. Naval Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance C4ISR capabilities will be impacted by the development of a number of technologies based on the information extracted from the emerging data.
Curved 3D organic light emitting diode OLED displays will be supported by form factors that take advantage of capabilities such as voice, handwriting, touch, gesture, eye movement, or even brain control. Designers will be able to interact with their designs without a keyboard or mouse, Human-Computer Interfaces HCI will encourage innovation and efficient design workflow. Such interfaces will be able to support more natural modes of interaction and will be more intuitive and therefore easier to operate, reducing the need for training.
Data obtained from remote sensing and intelligent algorithms will accelerate the ship design process, and 2D design will be easily converted into 3D. These will monitor external seawater temperature, impacts, and fouling and internal factors stresses, microbial induced corrosion, and bending. This information will enable a new approach called Hull-Skin-Data centered decisions that would be adopted according to those working parameters.
An increasing number of embedded sensors will be fitted to pipes so that new laser technologies and robotics can speed up the cutting process. Adaptable hull forms will be developed to tackle better different speed profiles and changing load conditions. Robots will also control the curvature of materials more precisely, thus offering optimal hull form.
Moreover, a ballast free design will be further developed to reduce the transfer of marine invasive species across different waters. Instead of leaving the majority of outfitting tasks until the moment after launching, some outfitting, such as piping and heavy machinery, will be developed together with the hull structure speeding up the building process.
Progressive sensorization process will enable automated casting, forging, rolling, cutting, welding or cleaning [ 4 ]. Time spent on the outfitting along the quay will be minimized.
Robotics will capture 3D images throughout the vessel and will establish a reference dataset to support real-time ship operations and life maintenance.
Furthermore, with the development of applications based on these emerging technologies, a Shipyard 4. Navantia [ 5 ] is a Spanish naval company Madrid, Spain that offers integral solutions to its clients and which has the capacity required to assume responsibility over any naval program in the world, delivering fully operational vessels, and support throughout the service life of the product. Its main working areas are the design and construction of hi-tech military and civil vessels, the design and manufacturing of control and combat systems, overhauls and alterations of military and civil vessels, diesel engine manufacturing, and turbine manufacturing.
The high level of the Spanish Navy, with a worldwide operating capacity and collaborations with the most modern navies, allows Navantia to offer value added products. Pipes are a key part of ships: a regular ship contains between 15, and 40, pipes, whose use goes from fuel transportation or coolant for engines, to carry drinking water or waste.
With such a huge number and varied typology, it is important to maintain the traceability and status of the pipes, what speeds up their maintenance procedures, accelerates locating them, and allows for obtaining easily their characteristics when building and installing them. A smart pipe system is a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, safety, strategic and economic benefits.
While the physical plane focuses on the designs for sensing, data-retrieving, event-handling, communication, and coverage problems, the cyber plane focuses on the development of cross-layered and cross-domain intelligence from multiple environments and the interactions between the virtual and the physical world.
In this paper, the physical plane is based on the concept of smart pipe, a sort of pipe able to transmit signals periodically that allows for providing useful services in a shipyard.
Today, the pipe management process varies depending on the shipyard, but, in general, it is performed in three different scenarios: the pipe workshop where they are built, and the block outfitting and the ship, where assembly takes place. This paper is focused on the pipe workshop, which is handled in a similar way in most shipyards. In Figure 1 it is represented the floor map of the pipe workshop that Navantia owns in Ferrol Galicia, Spain. The areas colored represent the main operative areas, while in white are offices and other secondary auxiliary areas.
The following are the most relevant areas:. Pipe reception. In this area raw pipes are stacked by the suppliers. It is divided into two different areas: small pipes are stored in a robotic storage, while large pipes are placed on the floor on diverse spots.
Some pipes need to be bent to adapt them to the characteristics of the place where they will be installed on the ship. These are actually three areas of the workshop where operators add accessories and where pipes made of multiple sub-pipes are joined.
In times of excessive production load, some is derived to external providers. The outbound storage area is where providers collect the pipes and return them after their processing. Before manufacturing, pipes have to be cleaned. This area contains bathtubs to expose pipes to hot water, acids, or pressurized water. In this scenario, the way pipes are currently built detailed next in Section 2. In this article it is proposed a system of smart pipes that avoids paperwork and automates pipe identification, tracking, and traceability control.
The system consists of a network of beacons that collect information about the location of the pipes continuously. Such information is provided by RFID tags that also contain information that allows operators to identify each pipe and determine how to process it at every stage.
The present paper is aimed at applying the latest research and the best technologies to build a smart pipe system for a shipyard, but it also includes the following novel contributions, which, as of writing, have not been found together in the literature:. It presents the concept of Shipyard 4. It describes in detail how a shipyard pipe workshop works and what are the requirements for building a smart pipe system.
The paper indicates how to build a positioning system from scratch in an environment as harsh in terms of communications as a shipyard. Furthermore, it was not found in the literature any practical analysis on the application of RFID technology in any similar application and scenario.
It defines the concept of smart pipe and shows an example of its implementation and the architecture that supports it. The article proposes the use of spatial diversity techniques to stabilize Received Signal Strength RSS values, a kind of technique whose application in RFID systems has not been found in the literature. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the process of pipe manufacturing in a modern shipyard and analyzes the technologies that can be used for identifying pipes.
Section 3 details the design of the system, including the operational and hardware requirements, and the communications architecture. Section 4 reviews the system modules and the RSS stabilization techniques proposed. Section 5 describes the experimental setup and the tests performed with the technologies selected.
Finally, Section 6 is devoted to the conclusions. The current procedure for managing the pipes in the workshop consists of the following steps:. Initially, pipes are placed in a storage area, where they will be collected by operators according to production needs. In the case of the shipyard that Navantia owns in Ferrol, two zones can be distinguished: one for small pipes and another for the large ones.
The area for small pipes is an intelligent warehouse where an operator registers the pipes that arrive and then extracts them on demand according to the characteristics specified. Figure 2 shows the stacking area for large pipes, whose occupancy level is not determined automatically. The first pipe processing point is the cutting area in Figure 3. In production, as soon as the first cut of a pipe is made, operators place a plastic label that is attached using electric cable this kind of cable is used because it has to resist being exposed to acids and hot water.
This label contains alphanumeric identification information and includes a barcode. Pipes are stacked on pallets, which allow for moving them easily between the different stages of the production chain.
Regarding such pallets, it is important to note that:. Pallets are moved by cranes through the workshop. They are not usually moved until they are considered to be full. When a pallet is moved to a new section, pipes are checked by operators who, by reading the label barcode with a scanner, get information on the process that should be carried out on the pipe.
At the same time, the barcode reading operation allows for registering its location, since every scanner is associated with a specific place. The second stage of the pipes is bending if it is required. There are three benders in the workshop, which can be controlled from a Windows-based PC that is also able to receive and load design files from the engineering department.
Before manufacturing, pipes might need to be cleaned. For such a purpose, there is an area for degreasing and rinsing pipes by using water or certain acids.
Many in the Pittsburgh area see it as an economic engine, but others worry about long-term harm. Samples of the plastic pellets that Shell will produce with its ethane cracker plant in Beaver County, Pa. By Michael Corkery. It is one of the largest active construction projects in the United States, employing more than 5, people. When completed, the facility will be fed by pipelines stretching hundreds of miles across Appalachia.
Smart Pipe System for a Shipyard 4.0
Skid Piping. Include 5 to 10 pipe diameters of straight run pipe between the pump inlet and elbow. We routinely fabricate high-specification piping systems such as gas turbine fuel forwarding manifold assemblies, integrated lube and seal oil systems, dry gas seal and buffer gas seal packages, and steam turbine generator sets. The installation of pipe can be accomplished in the following two primary ways, or combinations thereof:. IndiaMART would like to help you find the best suppliers for your requirement. It is an overview of the main processes and equipment. They consist of PD meters, air eliminators, strainers, control valves, unloading arms, preset controllers, control valves, safety interlocks, electromechanical parts and piping.
Pipeline Pigging Products manufactures internal pipeline cleaners referred to in the trade as "Poly Pigs" in all sizes. With over 60 years of combined experience in manufacturing, research and application, our knowledge of Poly Pigs is unsurpassed in the industry. Our service division Flowmore Services specializes in pipeline cleaning. We are prepared and equipped to provide assistance on small or large cleaning projects. Pigging Products PPP manufactures and stocks a wide variety of conventional pigs and pigging related equipment. Our factory service teams use the same equipment that we sell to our customers, so you can be assured of a reliable quality product that is right for the job. Click here to visit our video of the pipeline pigging process.
Try Lucidchart. It's quick, easy, and completely free. They are typically created by engineers who are designing a manufacturing process for a physical plant. With the record they provide, changes can be planned safely and effectively using Management of Change MOC. They can also be useful in training workers and contractors. Specifications are usually provided in separate documents. But they are incredibly useful in many ways, including:.
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We deliver optimum solutions for the planning, design and development of marine terminals and pipelines. Our expertise ranges from large-scale projects to in-depth consultancy work; from concept design and front-end engineering to detailed design, operations and decommissioning. We tackle the toughest industry challenges, such as high operational temperatures and pressures, ultra-deep waters, and critical environmental conditions to ensure safe and efficient solutions.
Flammable mixture. Mixtures of fuel gases and air or oxygen may be explosive and shall be guarded against. No device or attachment facilitating or permitting mixtures of air or oxygen with flammable gases prior to consumption, except at the burner or in a standard torch, shall be allowed unless approved for the purpose. Maximum pressure. Under no condition shall acetylene be generated, piped except in approved cylinder manifolds or utilized at a pressure in excess of 15 psig kPa gauge pressure or 30 psia kPa absolute. The 30 psia kPa absolute limit is intended to prevent unsafe use of acetylene in pressurized chambers such as caissons, underground excavations or tunnel construction. This requirement is not intended to apply to storage of acetylene dissolved in a suitable solvent in cylinders manufactured and maintained according to U. Department of Transportation requirements, or to acetylene for chemical use. The use of liquid acetylene shall be prohibited.
Types of Valves Used in the Oil & Gas Industry
Ver eBook. Frank Lees. Butterworth-Heinemann , 10 ene. Over the last three decades the process industries have grown very rapidly, with corresponding increases in the quantities of hazardous materials in process, storage or transport. Plants have become larger and are often situated in or close to densely populated areas. Increased hazard of loss of life or property is continually highlighted with incidents such as Flixborough, Bhopal, Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, the Phillips 66 incident, and Piper Alpha to name but a few. The field of Loss Prevention is, and continues to, be of supreme importance to countless companies, municipalities and governments around the world, because of the trend for processing plants to become larger and often be situated in or close to densely populated areas, thus increasing the hazard of loss of life or property. This book is a detailed guidebook to defending against these, and many other, hazards. It could without exaggeration be referred to as the "bible" for the process industries.
Drilling is a major part of oil and gas industry procedures. As the rig digs deep, it leads to potentially dangerous circumstances. Rig operators must take precise measurements to extract oil by drilling. If deep-water drilling is carried out in the wrong way it leads to mishaps. IoT devices are beneficial for minimizing risks and carrying out tough operations seamlessly.
The Ibaraki factory of Kihara Manufacturing Company specializes in production of piping and tubing, including truck exhaust pipes, engine pipes, and hydraulic pipes for construction equipment. Production scheduling is performed twice each morning, first for products and then again for parts. Due to the flexibility of the Asprova program, they were able to deal with the large number of customers and products while keeping customization to a minimum. Up till now in the Ibaraki factory of Kihara Manufacturing Company, process managers for each customer carried out instruction-based production which depended on the exchange of considerable paperwork in the form of production plans, work charts, missing item lists, and instruction supplements.
Learn about the different types of valves used in the oil and gas industry and their differences: API and ASME gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly designs manual or actuated, with forged and cast bodies. Forged valves are used for small bore or high-pressure piping applications, cast valves for piping above 2 inches. The different types of valves used in the petrochemical industry suit any of the following applications:. Source: Spirax Sarco.
Relationship to Other Statutes and Public Policy. Amendments of NLRA.
Within industry , piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids liquids and gases from one location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid. Industrial process piping and accompanying in-line components can be manufactured from wood , fiberglass , glass , steel , aluminum , plastic , copper , and concrete. The in-line components, known as fittings ,  valves , and other devices, typically sense and control the pressure , flow rate and temperature of the transmitted fluid, and usually are included in the field of piping design or piping engineering , though the sensors and automatic controlling devices may alternatively be treated as part of instrumentation and control design.