Pfeuffer is a manufacturer of quality control products for the grain and seed processing industries. The product range includes the sampling of grain and seeds during seed production, the delivery of harvested grain, further processing and the measuring of different quality parameters during the entire process. The farmers are the starting point. They plant the crops on the land. They optimize the yield and the quality by irrigating, fertilizing and controlling pests.
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Industrial Hemp ProductionVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Industrial Hemp production basics for Ontario
Cotton production practices begin after the previous crop is harvested. The first operations usually include shredding stalks, ripping out roots and disking the soil. Fertilizer and herbicides generally are applied and incorporated into the soil before the land is bedded in preparation for needed irrigation or planting.
Since soil characteristics and past fertilization and cropping practices can cause a wide range of fertility levels in cotton soils, fertility programmes should be based on soil test analyses. Control of weeds is essential to obtain high lint yield and quality. Herbicides have been widely used in many countries for weed control since the early s. Application methods include pre-planting treatment to foliage of existing weeds, incorporation into pre-plant soil and treatment at pre-emergence and post-emergence stages.
Several factors that play an important role in achieving a good stand of cotton plants include seed-bed preparation, soil moisture, soil temperature, seed quality, seedling disease infestation, fungicides and soil salinity. Planting high-quality seed in a well-prepared seed-bed is a key factor in achieving early, uniform stands of vigorous seedlings. A suitable planter metering system should be used to ensure uniform spacing of seed regardless of seed size.
Early-season seedling diseases can hamper uniform stands and result in the need to replant. Important seedling disease pathogens such as Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium and Thielaviopsis can reduce plant stands and cause long skips between seedlings. Only seed that has been properly treated with one or more fungicides should be planted.
Cotton is similar to other crops with respect to water use during different plant developmental stages. Water use is generally less than 0. During this period, loss of soil moisture by evaporation may exceed the amount of water transpired by the plant. Water requirement refers to the total amount of water rainfall and irrigation needed to produce a crop of cotton.
Insect populations can have an important impact on cotton quality and yield. Protecting early fruit positions is essential to achieving a profitable crop. During the fruiting period, producers should scout their cotton at least twice a week to monitor insect activity and damage. A well-managed defoliation programme reduces leaf trash that can adversely affect the grade of the harvested cotton.
Growth regulators such as PIX are useful defoliators because they control vegetative growth and contribute to earlier fruiting. Two types of mechanical harvesting equipment are used to harvest cotton: the spindle picker and the cotton stripper.
The spindle picker is a selective-type harvester that uses tapered, barbed spindles to remove seed cotton from bolls. This harvester can be used on a field more than once to provide stratified harvests. On the other hand, the cotton stripper is a nonselective or once-over harvester that removes not only the well-opened bolls but also the cracked and unopened bolls along with the burs and other foreign matter. Agronomic practices that produce a high-quality uniform crop will generally contribute to good harvesting efficiency.
The field should be well drained and rows laid out for effective use of machinery. Row ends should be free of weeds and grass, and should have a field border of 7. The border also should be free of weeds and grass. Disking creates adverse conditions in rainy weather, so chemical weed control or mowing should be used instead. Plant height should not exceed about 1.
Plant height can be controlled to some extent by using chemical growth regulators at the proper growth stage. Production practices that set the bottom boll at least 10 cm above the ground should be used. Culturing practices such as fertilization, cultivation and irrigation during the growing season should be carefully managed to produce a uniform crop of well-developed cotton.
Chemical defoliation is a culturing practice that induces abscission shedding of foliage. Defoliants may be applied to help minimize green-leaf-trash contamination and promote faster drying of early morning dew on the lint. After a defoliant is applied, the crop should not be harvested for at least 7 to 14 days the period will vary depending on chemicals used and weather conditions. Chemical desiccants may also be used to prepare plants for harvest.
Desiccation is the rapid loss of water from the plant tissue and subsequent death of the tissue. The dead foliage remains attached to the plant. The current trend in cotton production is toward a shorter season and one-time harvest.
Chemicals that accelerate the boll opening process are applied with the defoliant or soon after the leaves drop.
These chemicals allow earlier harvests and increase the percentage of bolls that are ready to be harvested during the first harvest. Because these chemicals have the ability to open or partially open immature bolls, the quality of the crop may be severely impacted i. The moisture content of cotton before and during storage is critical; excess moisture causes stored cotton to overheat, resulting in lint discolouration, lower seed germination and possibly spontaneous combustion.
Several variables affect seed and fibre quality during seed cotton storage. Moisture content is the most important. Other variables include length of storage, amount of high-moisture foreign matter, variation in moisture content throughout the stored mass, initial temperature of the seed cotton, temperature of the seed cotton during storage, weather factors during storage temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and protection of the cotton from rain and wet ground.
Yellowing is accelerated at high temperatures. Both temperature rise and maximum temperature are important. Temperature rise is directly related to the heat generated by biological activity. About 80 million bales of cotton are produced annually worldwide, of which about 20 million are produced by about 1, gins in the United States.
The principal function of the cotton gin is to separate lint from seed, but the gin must also be equipped to remove a large percentage of the foreign matter from the cotton that would significantly reduce the value of the ginned lint.
Accordingly, quality preservation during ginning requires the proper selection and operation of each machine in a ginning system. Mechanical handling and drying may modify the natural quality characteristics of cotton. At best, a ginner can only preserve the quality characteristics inherent in the cotton when it enters the gin. The following paragraphs briefly discuss the function of the major mechanical equipment and processes in the gin.
Cotton is transported from a trailer or module into a green-boll trap in the gin, where green bolls, rocks and other heavy foreign matter are removed. Cotton that is not well dispersed can travel through the drying system in clumps, and only the surface of that cotton will be dried. In the first stage of drying, heated air conveys the cotton through the shelves for 10 to 15 seconds. The temperature of the conveying air is regulated to control the amount of drying.
Dryer-temperature sensors should be located as near as possible to the point where cotton and heated air come together. The temperature drop downstream results from the cooling effect of evaporation and from heat loss through the walls of machinery and piping. The drying continues as the warm air moves the seed cotton to the cylinder cleaner, which consists of 6 or 7 revolving spiked cylinders that rotate at to rpm. These cylinders scrub the cotton over a series of grid rods or screens, agitate the cotton and allow fine foreign materials, such as leaves, trash and dirt, to pass through the openings for disposal.
Cylinder cleaners break up large wads and generally condition the cotton for additional cleaning and drying. Processing rates of about 6 bales per hour per metre of cylinder length are common. The stick machine removes larger foreign matter, such as burs and sticks, from the cotton. The foreign matter that is slung off the reclaimer feeds into the trash-handling system. Processing rates of 4. After going through another stage of drying and cylinder cleaning, cotton is distributed to each gin stand by the conveyor-distributor.
Located above the gin stand, the extractor-feeder meters seed cotton uniformly to the gin stand at controllable rates, and cleans seed cotton as a secondary function. The moisture content of cotton fibre at the extractor-feeder apron is critical. The moisture must be low enough that foreign matter can be easily removed in the gin stand. This breakage causes an appreciable reduction both in fibre length and lint turnout.
From a quality standpoint, cotton with a higher content of short fibres produces excessive waste at the textile mill and is less desirable. Two types of gins are in common use—the saw gin and the roller gin. In , Eli Whitney invented a gin that removed fibre from the seed by means of spikes or saws on a cylinder. Cotton usually Gossypium hirsutum enters the saw gin stand through a huller front.
The saws grasp the cotton and draw it through widely spaced ribs known as huller ribs. The locks of cotton are drawn from the huller ribs into the bottom of the roll box. The actual ginning process—separation of lint and seed—takes place in the roll box of the gin stand. The ginning action is caused by a set of saws rotating between ginning ribs. The saw teeth pass between the ribs at the ginning point. Here the leading edge of the teeth is approximately parallel to the rib, and the teeth pull the fibres from the seed, which are too large to pass between the ribs.
Ginning at rates above those recommended by the manufacturer can cause fibre quality reduction, seed damage and choke-ups. Gin stand saw speeds are also important. High speeds tend to increase the fibre damage done during ginning. Roller-type gins provided the first mechanically aided means of separating extra-long staple cotton Gossypium barbadense lint from seed.
In , Fones McCarthy invented a more efficient roller gin that consisted of a leather ginning roller, a stationary knife held tightly against the roller and a reciprocating knife that pulled the seed from the lint as the lint was held by the roller and stationary knife. This gin is currently the only roller-type gin used in the United States. Cotton is conveyed from the gin stand through lint ducts to condensers and formed again into a batt.
The batt is removed from the condenser drum and fed into the saw-type lint cleaner. Inside the lint cleaner, cotton passes through the feed rollers and over the feed plate, which applies the fibres to the lint cleaner saw. The saw carries cotton under grid bars, which are aided by centrifugal force and remove immature seeds and foreign matter. It is important that the clearance between the saw tips and grid bars be properly set. The grid bars must be straight with a sharp leading edge to avoid reducing cleaning efficiency and increasing lint loss.
Roller-ginned cotton is usually cleaned with non-aggressive, non-saw-type cleaners to minimize fibre damage.
Mumbai, Maharashtra. Makarpura, Vadodara Plot No. C, Makarpura, Vadodara - , Dist. Vadodara, Gujarat. Kolkata, West Bengal.
Nut and seed processing at its best
The company focuses mainly on the business of seeds like corn, rice, vegetables, with its scale of operation leading the way in China. China Seed has completed strategic investment in 13 companies in the industry. China Seed Life Science and Technology Center, now under construction in Wuhan, constitutes the largest investment to seed companies in China to date, in the hope of establishing an international standard seed-breeding platform with high-tech, high flux, assembly line and industrialized production by integrating the latest materials both at home and abroad in the fields of conventional seed breeding and agricultural technologies like genomics and molecular biology. We continue to deepen the strategic cooperation with seed research institutes and academic circle.
Seed Processing Machinery
Raymond A. George has spent a lifetime in agronomy specialising in seed production. He then worked as an Advisory Officer for four years prior a lecturing and research appointment in crop production at the University of Bath where he supervised a team of research postgraduates studying seed production. He continues to write on seed production and associated topics. Vegetable Seed Production. Successful seed supplies are vital in maintaining vegetable production and availability, and for ensuring food security for many subsistence farmers in developing countries. Providing a broad and expert coverage of the horticultural production of vegetables grown from seed, this fully updated new edition includes new coverage of the production of genetically modified crops, organic seed production, packaging, and honey bee population, as well as updated references and further reading.
The Guide to Industrial Hemp Processing Equipment in 2020
The passing of the Farm Bill legalized hemp and hemp-derived products under federal law in the United States. The removal of hemp from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act has helped fade the stigma that has long surrounded cannabis and hemp. Industrial hemp, also known as non-psychoactive hemp, refers to the cannabis sativa plant that is grown specifically for industrial use, and it should not be confused with psychoactive marijuana.
However, in countries like Kazakhstan, the state enterprises hold a quasi -monopolistic position. The formal seed supply system delivers certified seed to farmers, and farmers save part of the harvest for planting the next crop, in line with their customary seed replacement rate. Seed certification and quality control services are provided by the public sector throughout the region. Due to the economic constraints that have prevailed in the agricultural sector during the last decade, many farmers have modified their seed replacement rate by delaying the period for purchasing new seed. Procurement or exchange of seed from other farmers in the community must have increased to the point of developing an embryo informal seed supply system. It is not clear if this system includes indigenous strategies used by farmers to improve the quality and quantity of seed i. The information obtained so far indicates that the system relies on breeder seed developed by the formal system. However, compared to other regions Africa, Near East, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia excluding the countries reviewed here , the formal system is still the major source of supply for farmers. The formal seed supply system in the region originated from the common pattern that prevailed in centrally planned economies.
Quality control of grain and seeds
Industrial agriculture is currently the dominant food production system in the United States. It's characterized by large-scale monoculture, heavy use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and meat production in CAFOs confined animal feeding operations. The industrial approach to farming is also defined by its heavy emphasis on a few crops that overwhelmingly end up as animal feed, biofuels, and processed junk food ingredients. From its midth century beginnings, industrial agriculture has been sold to the public as a technological miracle. Its efficiency, we were told, would allow food production to keep pace with a rapidly growing global population, while its economies of scale would ensure that farming remained a profitable business. Scientists and farmers are developing smart, modern agricultural systems that could reduce or eliminate many of the costs of industrial agriculture—and still allow farmers to run a profitable business.
Industrial hemp production in South Australia
Primary Industries and Regions SA is responsible for issuing licences to authorise the possession, cultivation, processing and supply of industrial hemp in South Australia SA. The very low concentration of THC in industrial hemp plants means they have none of the psychoactive mind altering effects associated with illicit cannabis varieties with higher THC concentrations often called marijuana. Industrial hemp is cultivated for seed or fibre production. Hemp fibre and pulp can be used in industrial and consumer textiles, paper and building materials, while hemp seed and hemp seed oil can be used in industrial products, cosmetics and food products. The Office of Industrial Hemp and Medicinal Cannabis has been initiated by the Government of South Australia to support the establishment of medicinal cannabis and industrial hemp industries. Acting as a single point of contact the Office will work with industry and government to provide ongoing support and advice, particularly for new ventures in the cultivation and processing of industrial hemp or medicinal cannabis.
Cotton production practices begin after the previous crop is harvested. The first operations usually include shredding stalks, ripping out roots and disking the soil.
Every system for processing nuts is unique. We plan, install and automate complete lines for different nuts and seeds, customized to meet your specific market needs. Hazelnuts, peanuts, almonds, seeds and more, how can we help?
The writer is grateful for the opportunity to address this meeting on the subject of the last ten years of the Hungarian seed sector, during the period since the change of regime, with special regard to the problems encountered during privatization. In addition to aspects specific to Hungary, much experience was gained that could be of use in other countries where privatization is now in progress or is still in the initial phases. The writer should like to provide food for thought, since the aim of this meeting is to discuss how the regional development of the seed sector could be accelerated. One important characteristic of Hungarian seed privatization was that it was based, to a large extent, on the existing traditions of seed production and trading.
This book will review the current status of the agriculture and agri-food sector in regard to green processing and provide strategies that can be used by the sector to enhance the use of environmentally-friendly technologies for production, processing. The book will look at the full spectrum from farm to fork beginning with chapters on life cycle analysis and environmental impact assessment of different agri-food sectors. Technologies for waste treatment, "reducing, reusing, recycling", and better water and energy stewardship will be reviewed. In addition, the last section of the book will attempt to look at technologies and processes that reduce the generation of process-induced toxins e.