Ship construction , complex of activities concerned with the design and fabrication of all marine vehicles. Ship construction today is a complicated compound of art and science. In the great days of sail , vessels were designed and built on the basis of practical experience; ship construction was predominantly a skill. The consequence of this was a rapid increase in the size, speed, commercial value, and safety of ships. He is usually required to prepare a design for a vessel that must carry a certain weight of cargo or number of passengers at a specified speed with particular reference to trade requirements; high-density cargoes, such as machinery, require little hold capacity, while the reverse is true for low-density cargoes , such as grain. Deadweight is defined as weight of cargo plus fuel and consumable stores, and lightweight as the weight of the hull, including machinery and equipment.
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The ShipyardVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Basic Boat Building Walkthrough, Part 1 - From the Depths 2.4
Boat building is the design and construction of boats and their systems. This includes at a minimum a hull , with propulsion, mechanical, navigation, safety and other systems as a craft requires. Wood is the traditional boat building material used for hull and spar construction.
It is buoyant, widely available and easily worked. It is a popular material for small boats of e. Its abrasion resistance varies according to the hardness and density of the wood and it can deteriorate if fresh water or marine organisms are allowed to penetrate the wood. Woods such as Teak , Totara and some cedars have natural chemicals which prevent rot whereas other woods, such as Pinus radiata , will rot very quickly.
The hull of a wooden boat usually consists of planking fastened to frames and a keel. Keel and frames are traditionally made of hardwoods such as oak while planking can be oak but is more often softwood such as pine , larch or cedar.
Plywood is especially popular for amateur construction but only marine ply using waterproof glues and even laminates should be used. Cheap construction plywood often has voids in the interior layers and is not suitable to boat building as the voids trap moisture and accelerate rot as well as physically weaken the plywood.
Varnish and Linseed oil should not be used on the exterior of a hull for waterproofing. Only boiled linseed oil should be used on a boat and only in the interior as it has very little water resistance but it is very easy to apply and has a pleasant smell.
Note that used linseed rags should not be left in a pile as they can catch fire. A valuable year-old waka Maori canoe caught fire in New Zealand in June when restorers left rags piled overnight. Raw linseed oil is not suited to boats as it stays damp and oily for a long time. Mildew will grow well on raw linseed oil treated timber but not on boiled linseed oil.
With tropical species, extra attention needs to be taken to ensure that the wood is indeed FSC -certified. Before teak is glued the natural oil must be wiped off with a chemical cleaner, otherwise the joint will fail.
Cold-moulded refers to a type of building one-off hulls using thin strips of wood applied to a series of forms at degree angles to the centerline. This method is often called double-diagonal because a minimum of two layers is recommended, each occurring at opposing degree angles. The "hot-moulded" method of building boats, which used ovens to heat and cure the resin, has not been widely used since World War II; and now almost all curing is done at room temperature.
Either used in sheet or alternatively, plate  for all-metal hulls or for isolated structural members. It is strong, but heavy despite the fact that the thickness of the hull can be less. The material rusts unless protected from water this is usually done by means of a covering of paint.
Modern steel components are welded or bolted together. As the welding can be done very easily with common welding equipment , and as the material is very cheap, it is a popular material with amateur builders. Also, amateur builders which are not yet well established in building steel ships may opt for DIY construction kits.
If steel is used, a zinc layer is often applied to coat the entire hull. It is applied after sandblasting which is required to have a cleaned surface and before painting. The painting is usually done with lead paint Pb 3 O 4. Optionally, the covering with the zinc layer may be left out, but it is generally not recommended. Zinc anodes also need to be placed on the ship's hull. Until the mids, steel sheets were riveted together. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are used both in sheet form for all-metal hulls or for isolated structural members.
Many sailing spars are frequently made of aluminium after The material requires special manufacturing techniques, construction tools and construction skills.
Aluminium is very expensive in most countries and it is usually not used by amateur builders. While it is easy to cut, aluminium is difficult to weld, and also requires heat treatments such as precipitation strengthening for most applications. Galvanic corrosion below the waterline is a serious concern, particularly in marinas where there are other conflicting metals.
Aluminium is most commonly found in yachts and power boats that are not kept permanently in the water. Aluminium yachts are particularly popular in France. A relatively expensive metal used only very occasionally in boatbuilding is cupronickel. Arguably the ideal metal for boat hulls, cupronickel is reasonably tough, highly resistant to corrosion in seawater, and is because of its copper content a very effective antifouling metal.
Cupronickel may be found on the hulls of premium tugboats , fishing boats and other working boats ; and may even be used for propellers and propeller shafts.
Fiberglass glass-reinforced plastic or GRP is typically used for production boats because of its ability to reuse a female mould as the foundation for the shape of the boat. The resulting structure is strong in tension but often needs to be either laid up with many heavy layers of resin-saturated fiberglass or reinforced with wood or foam in order to provide stiffness. GRP hulls are largely free of corrosion though not normally fireproof.
These can be solid fiberglass or of the sandwich cored type, in which a core of balsa , foam or similar material is applied after the outer layer of fiberglass is laid to the mould, but before the inner skin is laid. This is similar to the next type, composite, but is not usually classified as composite, since the core material in this case does not provide much additional strength. It does, however, increase stiffness, which means that less resin and fiberglass cloth can be used in order to save weight.
Most fibreglass boats are currently made in an open mould, with fibreglass and resin applied by hand hand-lay-up method. Some are now constructed by vacuum infusion where the fibres are laid out and resin is pulled into the mould by atmospheric pressure. This can produce stronger parts with more glass and less resin, but takes special materials and more technical knowledge.
Older fibreglass boats before were often not constructed in controlled temperature buildings leading to the widespread problem of fibreglass pox, where seawater seeped through small holes and caused delamination. The name comes from the multiude of surface pits in the outer gelcoat layer which resembles smallpox. Sometimes the problem was caused by atmospheric moisture being trapped in the layup during construction in humid weather. Fast cargo vessels once were copper-bottomed to prevent being slowed by marine fouling.
GRP and ferrocement hulls are classic composite hulls, the term "composite" applies also to plastics reinforced with fibers other than glass. When a hull is being created in a female mould, the composite materials are applied to the mould in the form of a thermosetting plastic usually epoxy , polyester, or vinylester and some kind of fiber cloth fiberglass , kevlar , dynel , carbon fiber , etc.
These methods can give strength-to-weight ratios approaching that of aluminum, while requiring less specialized tools and construction skills. First developed in the midth century in both France and Holland, ferrocement was also used for the D-Day Mulberry harbours. After a buzz of excitement among homebuilders in the s, ferro building has since declined. Ferrocement is a relatively cheap method to produce a hull, although unsuitable for commercial mass production.
A steel and iron "armature" is built to the exact shape of the hull, ultimately being covered in galvanised chicken netting. Then, on a single day, the cement is applied by a team of plasterers. The cement:sand ratio is a very rich ; do not call it concrete! As the hull thickness is typically 2. Properly plastered ferrocement boats have smooth hulls with fine lines, and amateur builders are advised to use professional plasterers to produce a smooth finish.
In the s and s, particularly in Australia and New Zealand, the cheapness of ferro construction encouraged amateur builders to build hulls larger than they could afford, not anticipating that the fitting-out costs of a larger boat can be crippling. See also : concrete ship , concrete canoe. There are many hull types, and a builder should choose the most appropriate one for the boat's intended purpose.
For example, a sea-going vessel needs a hull which is more stable and robust than a hull used in rivers and canals. Hull types include:. Boat construction underway at Bheemunipatnam .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with shipbuilding. It has been suggested that Boat building tools be merged into this article. Discuss Proposed since March Further information: Hull watercraft. Main article: Glossary of nautical terms. Retrieved Archived from the original on History Glossary Wood lumber. Frame and panel Frameless construction. Category WikiProject Commons.
Ancient shipbuilding techniques Shipbuilding in the early modern era Shipbuilding in the American colonies.
Dugout Carvel Clinker Strip-built Mortise and tenon. Boat building Sail plan Marine engineering Marine propulsion Naval architecture Maritime history Archaeology of shipwrecks. Categories : Boat building. Hidden categories: Articles to be merged from March All articles to be merged Commons category link is on Wikidata.
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Ships & Modules
Boat building is the design and construction of boats and their systems. This includes at a minimum a hull , with propulsion, mechanical, navigation, safety and other systems as a craft requires. Wood is the traditional boat building material used for hull and spar construction. It is buoyant, widely available and easily worked. It is a popular material for small boats of e. Its abrasion resistance varies according to the hardness and density of the wood and it can deteriorate if fresh water or marine organisms are allowed to penetrate the wood.
Today the hull of Victory is braced with considerable amount of iron work, either in the form of Robert's plate knees, various designs of breast hooks and other supportive strapping. Popular consensus is such that most of this iron work was present at the period of , however closer analysis of the ship and supportive evidence suggests that this is not entirely true. What we do see on Victory is a transition in ship construction technique, albeit a preliminary countermeasure to strengthen weakened hull fabric, the form of which is merely a improvement on earlier methods. With exception to bolts and nails and other more minor fittings, the first serious indication we have of iron being used as a substitute for timber components was circa when the naval shipwright Sir Anthony Deane, a protege of Samuel Pepys, built the 1 st rate Royal James at Portsmouth. After visiting the dockyard, he wrote to Deane stating; "that you have of your own head, without precedent, as well as without the advice, or so much as the privity, of this Board or the Commissioner upon the place, presumed to lay aside the old secure practice of fastening your beams in your new ships with standards and knees, and in the room thereof taken upon you to do it iron ". Deane's allegations supported the fact that there was already a serious problem regarding a shortage of timber.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Making Sails for Ship Models from Silkspan, Parts 1 & 2
The first revolution in modern boat building was the shift from mostly wood to mostly fiberglass construction. Fiberglass boat construction is when the major components of the boat—the hull, deck, liner, and large parts like consoles—are molded from fiberglass. When the resin cures, you have a hull. Resin and cores make up a large part of the construction. There are three types of resins: polyester, vinylester and epoxy. Core materials are often used to reduce weight and increase stiffness. Advanced boat building techniques include vacuum bagging and vacuum infusion, where minimizing weight while maximizing strength is virtually always the goal. These days, boat building is actually pretty high-tech. In the modern age, building a boat begins with a mold. These will be used to create Bavaria powerboats.
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The principles described for the construction of small plugs and moulds equally apply to large. In the case of a new vessel design construction of the plug calls for the traditional skills of a boat builder. Wood is the principle material for construction but foam or balsa can be used as well as other less common materials such as C-Flex. Though traditional skills are required, if carpenters have not built a plug before new demands will be made in terms of accuracy and quality of workmanship.
Richard Steffy The glossary is primarily relevant to the first two sections of this handbook and is not meant to be representative of the entire field of maritime archaeology. As an independent contribution, it is an exquisite source of information on ship construction terminology, but also a testament to the work of the late Mr. Steffy, whose influence has been instrumental to the understanding of wooden ship building and the interpretation of shipwrecks and archival material. Words set in bold type are defined elsewhere in the glossary. Entries have been illustrated wherever possible, either within the glossary or in the text. Alternate terms or spellings are listed in brackets after the entry. Alternate definitions for a single entry are commonplace; this is the result of diffusion, varying localities, and technological progress. However, the reader is cautioned that many of the timbers and devices listed here might have had additional identifications, often the invention of the writer or in local slang; some difficulty may be experienced in identifying such entries in various documents.
Boat Building: Basic Construction of Resin, Fiberglass, and Cores
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It is important to us that you are involved in the entire process: from design to delivery. Therefore, you are always welcome to visit us in the production hall. Fibreglass is a strong and malleable material: so malleable, we can perform design details and so strong, we can offer an ice warranty.
Universal Joint - Red. Mantua HMS Victory.
The economic aspect of running a merchant vessel is of prime importance as a shipowner requires a build which maximises the returns for his initial investment and covers his running costs. This implies that the final design takes into account the economic conditions at the time of building, and also those that are likely to develop within the life of the ship.
At its forefront is the immense knowhow on boat construction, the engineering ingenuity and design. Today, it is possible to realise the entire range of this knowledge with a high degree of precision and quality.