Jute is an amazing fibre - it's incredibly sustainable, it's affordable, it's fast-drying and it's breathable. Let's take a closer look at exactly how this fibre is cultivated, the type of fabrics it makes and just why it's so eco-friendly. Jute comes from a vegetable, which is derived from the plant family Sparrmanniaceae. There are many varieties of jute, but almost all have the same properties: long, soft and shiny fibres. Because of the fibre's strength, it can be spun into coarse, strong, durable yarn or threads. This yarn is then used to make the sturdy hessian or burlap and gunny cloth.
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Supplycompass InsightsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Banana Fiber Extraction Processing, Yarn Spinning & Weaving
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric.
These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth.
There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year , the global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries.
There are six stages: . Cotton is grown anywhere with long, hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity. Indian cotton, Gossypium arboreum , is finer but the staple is only suitable for hand processing. American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum , produces the longer staple needed for machine production.
The cotton bolls are harvested by stripper harvesters and spindle pickers that remove the entire boll from the plant. The cotton boll is the seed pod of the cotton plant; attached to each of the thousands of seeds are fibres about 2. Scutching refers to the process of cleaning cotton of its seeds and other impurities. The first scutching machine was invented in , but did not come into further mainstream use until after or , when it was introduced and used in Manchester, England.
By , it had become generally adopted. The scutching machine worked by passing the cotton through a pair of rollers, and then striking it with iron or steel bars called beater bars or beaters.
The beaters, which turn very quickly, strike the cotton hard and knock the seeds out. This process is done over a series of parallel bars so as to allow the seeds to fall through. At the same time, air is blown across the bars, which carries the cotton into a cotton chamber. The weaving process uses a loom. The lengthway threads are known as the warp , and the cross way threads are known as the weft.
The warp, which must be strong, needs to be presented to loom on a warp beam. The weft passes across the loom in a shuttle , that carries the yarn on a pirn.
These pirns are automatically changed by the loom. Thus, the yarn needs to be wrapped onto a beam, and onto pirns before weaving can commence. When a hand loom was located in the home, children helped with the weaving process from an early age. Piecing needs dexterity, and a child can be as productive as an adult. When weaving moves from the home to the mill, children are often allowed to help their older sisters, and laws have to be made to prevent child labour becoming established.
Knitting by machine is done in two different ways; warp and weft. Weft knitting as seen in the pictures is similar in method to hand knitting with stitches all connected to each other horizontally.
Various weft machines can be configured to produce textiles from a single spool of yarn or multiple spools depending on the size of the machine cylinder where the needles are bedded.
In a warp knit there are many pieces of yarn and there are vertical chains, zigzagged together by crossing the cotton yarn. Warp knits do not stretch as much as a weft knit, and it is run-resistant. A weft knit is not run-resistant, but stretches more.
This is especially true if spools of spandex are processed from separate spool containers and interwoven through the cylinder with cotton yarn, giving the finished product more flexibility and making it less prone to having a 'baggy' appearance. The average t-shirt is a weft knit. The woven cotton fabric in its loom-state not only contains impurities, including warp size, but requires further treatment in order to develop its full textile potential.
Furthermore, it may receive considerable added value by applying one or more finishing processes. Production of cotton requires arable land. Native Indian varieties of cotton were rainwater fed, but modern hybrids used for the mills need irrigation, which spreads pests. The consumption of energy in form of water and electricity is relatively high, especially in processes like washing, de-sizing, bleaching, rinsing, dyeing, printing, coating and finishing.
Processing is time consuming. The major portion of water in textile industry is used for wet processing of textile 70 per cent. Approximately 25 per cent of energy in the total textile production like fibre production, spinning, twisting, weaving, knitting, clothing manufacturing etc.
About 34 per cent of energy is consumed in spinning, 23 per cent in weaving, 38 per cent in chemical wet processing and five per cent in miscellaneous processes. Power dominates consumption pattern in spinning and weaving, while thermal energy is the major factor for chemical wet processing. However, due to carbon emissions from fertiliser application, use of mechanized tools to harvest the cotton, The growth of cotton is divided into two segments i. Genetically modified products aim to increase disease resistance and reduce the water required.
Before mechanisation, cotton was harvested manually by farmers in India and by African slaves in America. In Uzbekistan was a major exporter of cotton and uses manual labour during the harvest. Human rights groups claim that health care professionals and children are forced to pick cotton. Flax is a bast fibre , which means it comes in bundles under the bark of the Linum usitatissimum plant. The plant flowers and is harvested.
It is now treated like cotton. Jute is a bast fibre , which comes from the inner bark of the plants of the Corchorus genus. It is retted like flax, sundried and baled. When spinning a small amount of oil must be added to the fibre. It can be bleached and dyed. It was used for sacks and bags but is now used for the backing for carpets.
In the s, jute-cotton composite fabrics were known as jutton fabrics. Hemp is a bast fibre from the inner bark of Cannabis sativa. It is difficult to bleach, and is used for making cord and rope.
These bast fibres can also be used: kenaf , urena , ramie , nettle. Wool comes from domesticated sheep. It forms two products, woolens and worsteds. The sheep has two sorts of wool and it is the inner coat that is used. This can be mixed with wool that has been recovered from rags. Shoddy is the term for recovered wool that is not matted, while mungo comes from felted wool.
The fleece is cut in one piece from the sheep. This is then skirted to remove the soiled wool, and baled. It is graded into long wool where the fibres can be up to 15 in, but anything over 2.
Fibres less than that form short wool and are described as clothing or carding wool. At the mill the wool is scoured in a detergent to remove grease the yolk and impurities. This is done mechanically in the opening machine. Vegetable matter can be removed chemically using sulphuric acid carbonising. Washing uses a solution of soap and sodium carbonate. The wool is oiled before carding or combing. The processes in silk production are similar to those of cotton but take account that reeled silk is a continuous fibre.
The terms used are different. Both wool and silk require farmland. Whereas silkworms require mulberry leaves, sheep eat grass, clover, forbs and other pasture plants. Sheep, like all ruminants emit CO2 via their digestive system. Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive development by scientists to improve upon the naturally occurring animal and plant fibres.
In general, synthetic fibres are created by forcing, or extruding , fibre forming materials through holes called spinnerets into the air, thus forming a thread.
Before synthetic fibres were developed, cellulose fibres were made from natural cellulose , which comes from plants. The first artificial fibre, known as art silk from onwards, became known as viscose around , and finally rayon in A similar product known as cellulose acetate was discovered in Rayon and acetate are both artificial fibres, but not truly synthetic, being made from wood. Although these artificial fibres were discovered in the mid-nineteenth century, successful modern manufacture began much later in the s.
Nylon , the first synthetic fibre, made its debut in the United States as a replacement for silk , and was used for parachutes and other military uses. The techniques used to process these fibres in yarn are essentially the same as with natural fibres, modifications have to be made as these fibres are of great length, and have no texture such as the scales in cotton and wool that aid meshing.
Unlike natural fibres, produced by plants, animals or insects, synthetic fibres are made from fossil fuels , and thus require no farmland. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Textile manufacturing by pre-industrial methods. Main article: Textile manufacture during the British Industrial Revolution.
Main article: Carding.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn.
Move over cotton, hello hemp
Natural and organic fibers become more and more popular these years. Most of the people come to realize that nature, soft and healthy are the most important things of the textile. Hemp fiber is naturally one of the most environmentally friendly fibers and also the oldest. The Columbia history of the world states that the oldest relics of human industry are bits of Hemp fabric discovered in tombs dating back to approximately B. Hemp is called a fiber of hundred uses. The significance of Hemp to the economic and day to day lives of our ancestors is increasingly being recognized. It was important for textile, paper, rope and oil production.
What is Hemp Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where
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Hemp Grow Bags
First the fibre classification and some general aspects are presented followed by a summary of the most widely applied natural fibres, involving quantities, harvesting methods and properties. A closer look will be given at the manufacturing of traditional natural fibre products as part of the rural industry. Natural fibres, often referred to as vegetable fibres, are extracted from plants and are classified into three categories, depending on the part of the plant they are extracted from. When determining the properties of natural fibres, one has to keep in mind that one is dealing with natural products with properties that are strongly influenced by their growing environment.
Amazing unused French hemp fabric. Hemp fabric is a type of textile that is made using fibers from the stalks of the Cannabis sativa plant. This plant has been recognized as a source of extraordinarily tensile and durable textile fibers for millennia, but the psychoactive qualities of Cannabis sativa have recently made it harder for farmers to produce this immensely beneficial crop. Over thousands of years, Cannabis sativa has been bred for two distinct purposes. On the one hand, many generations of cultivators of this plant have selectively bred it to be high in tetrahydrocannabinol THC and other psychoactive chemical constituents called cannabinoids.
Bast Fibres: Size of Production
Many designers are experts in the form and functionality of the materials they use. This guide is intended to be a non-exhaustive listing of issues pertaining to sustainable fabrics that can be considered when choosing a fabric for a particular project. It is very important to note that the sustainability of fabrics can vary dramatically depending on how they are blended, dyed, transported, and processed. Tencel is a natural, man-made fibre which is also referred to as Lyocell. Tencel is similar to rayon in feel. Soft, breathable, lightweight, and comfortable. Hemp fabric is made from the fibres in the herbaceous plant of the species cannabis sativa. Hemp is a renewable resource which grows more quickly and easily than trees. As such, hemp more cost effective than waiting decades for trees to grow to be used in man-made fiber production such as lyocell and rayon from wood pulps. Clothing made of hemp fiber is lightweight, absorbant and, with three times the tensile strength of cotton, strong and longlasting.
Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest human activities. The oldest known textiles date back to about B.
Through the Supplycompass platform, brands get matched with a manufacturer, receive cost estimates, create tech packs, request samples and manage production all from one dashboard. For brands looking to launch more sustainable collections, one of the first things to consider when going through the design process is, what fabrics should you choose?
Cotton has high maintenance costs, requires pesticides to thrive, dominates agricultural systems that include it, and leaves soil depleted of nutrients, so why is such a damaging crop seen to be the only natural fibre in the textile market? Over the past century there has been so much research around the cotton plant that it still remains the first choice in fibre production. However, with the risk of demand outweighing supply, the cracks are beginning to show.