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Space manufacture workers and special-purpose products

Space manufacture workers and special-purpose products

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Glossary of Advanced Manufacturing Terms

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Of late, business press and management seminars have been alive with the promise that leading-edge production technology will restore the competitive cost position of American industry. Less well appreciated, however, are the far-reaching effects that such process advances will have on the underlying structure of manufacturing operations.

Heightened flexibility, shorter production runs, more customized products, […]. Heightened flexibility, shorter production runs, more customized products, faster responses to changes in market demand, greater control and accuracy of processes, quicker throughout—all these and more will inevitably result if managers apply the new technology well. With a clear sense of the challenges ahead, the authors provide a framework for thinking about those consequences.

In practice, they have routinely treated manufacturing decisions as straightforward matters to be delegated well down in an organization. After all, why spend precious executive time reviewing yet again the persuasive arguments for seeking economies of scale in production through ever more capital-intensive processes? Rapid changes in manufacturing technology, as well as in international competition, have at last begun to call into question the soundness of these familiar arguments.

For managers, the key trade-off—increased efficiency lower unit costs, greater precision, and higher production volumes for flexibility—inevitably led to greater specialization even at the cost of increasing rigidity.

Today, however, these assumptions do not hold for factories based on recent advances in computer-integrated manufacturing technology. Nor do they hold as global competition favors product customization, which in turn plays hob with traditional approaches to standardization, inventory, product positioning, and the like. Even at the operational level, the new technology demands new ways of thinking. These new manufacturing technologies may provide lower unit costs, but they may also require substantial initial outlays.

For fully integrated systems, the up-front investment is often greater than that for comparable nonintegrated or noncontrolled equipment—a cost difference comparable to that between the early numerically controlled machine tools and the manual systems that preceded them.

Naturally, with increased cost, the ante is up for management: the risk is higher, the gamble is greater. Thus, to realize adequate returns from investments in the new manufacturing technology, managers must seek to do more than just improve the economy of present activities.

More important, precisely because manufacturing decisions will increasingly affect—and be affected by—the wider range of strategic options implicit in that technology, managers must be able to recognize the benefits that changes in process technology are making available.

If they do not or cannot, better-informed competitors will. How, then, has the sophisticated application of computers changed the manufacturing process, and what are the implications of these changes for competitive strategy? No answers to these questions would be complete without mentioning such new or refined capabilities as:.

Extreme flexibility in product design and product mix, which allows for an almost unlimited variety of specific designs within a reasonable family of options, including alternative materials. Rapid response to changes in market demand, product design and mix, output rates, and equipment scheduling.

Greater control, accuracy, and repeatability of processes, all of which lead to better quality products and more reliable manufacturing operations. Reduced waste, lower training and changeover costs, and more predictable maintenance costs. Greater predictability in all phases of manufacturing operations and more information, both of which make possible more intensive management and control of the system.

Faster throughput due to better use of all machines, less in-process inventory, fewer stoppages for missing parts or materials, or machine breakdowns. Distributed processing capability made possible and economical by the encoding of process information in easily replicable software. These emerging capabilities directly challenge most current assumptions about manufacturing that stem from the notion of economies of scale—in particular, the notion that greater production volumes display lower unit costs than do lesser volumes.

Greater volumes allow for the use of expensive special-purpose equipment, which in turn is justified only by large-scale operations.

By contrast, the new technical capabilities rest on economies of scope—that is, efficiencies wrought by variety, not volume. Putting it simply, computer controls, programmed production sequences, and electronic memory make feasible the application of leading-edge processing techniques to small production runs.

In the steel industry, for example, the new and highly efficient mini-mill operations of Nucor and Chaparral are profitably taking market share from both the Japanese and larger U. The advantages of smaller, more flexible plants are not limited to steel.

Throughout the manufacturing sector, modes of production once economical only in very large plants and for the fabrication or assembly of many identical units are now available with little cost penalty to much smaller operations. Bigger production runs are no longer obviously better. Smaller factories and shorter production runs for any given product design, as well as ease in shifting from one design to another—these are the realities of computer-aided manufacturing with which strategy must now grapple.

Economies of scope exist where the same equipment can produce multiple products more cheaply in combination than separately. A computer-controlled machine tool does not care whether it works in succession on a dozen units of the same design or in random sequence on a dozen different product designs—within, of course, a family of design limits. Changeover times and therefore costs are negligible, since the task of machine set-up involves little more than reading a computer program.

The enhanced flexibility that comes from moving set-up costs back into the design process directly affects product line and inventory. It may, for example, be cheaper to make replacements to order than to warehouse them, and it is certainly possible to make a far broader product line.

Moreover, establishing the necessary programming and computer controls may stimulate new product designs or so extend knowledge about manufacturing processes that current products can be redesigned for better manufacturability. If engineering data on desired weights or alternative materials for existing components—say, the fender molds for an automobile—can be easily varied, style changes become simple and fit can be assured.

And if a particular robot can weld, drill, polish, and paint different parts in whatever sequence is convenient, the same machinery can produce a wide range of pieces, materials, and products. As the economic order quantity EOQ approaches 1 and as making the proper trade-off between changeover costs and inventory costs becomes a trivial problem, producers will find it as economical to manufacture one unit as to manufacture many.

Further, since a machine tool is as smart on the first unit as it ever will be, until its program is adjusted, learning-curve changes in costs do not occur in the same ways. Taken together, these developments imply a fully fixed-cost manufacturing system in which responsibility for learning-curve improvements, usually the domain of operations management, will shift backward to manufacturing engineering.

As Exhibit I suggests, computer-based process technology sharply questions the established logic of production. On balance, then, the impact of this new technology is not just more precision or greater speed. When manufacturing was primarily art, craft, and manual skill, the relevant process information lay in human brains.

Workers—not machines—possessed the relevant knowledge and experience. They set the criteria, furnished judgment, and monitored the process. With the coming of mechanical technology, knowledge was built into special-purpose machines as control hardware. Such machines were usually faster and more accurate than their human counterparts, but they were also more expensive and less flexible.

Matching general-purpose machines with special-purpose programming moves the work of production, even in small batches, toward the smooth flow of chemical process operations.

Equally important, the flexibility of such matching opens up new markets, customers, and channels of distribution and, along with them, new routes to competitive advantage. To survive in this changed environment, managers must learn to compete on overall process efficiency as well as on the ability to customize products and to serve diverse markets—not just on low unit costs. Some managers have already absorbed the lesson. Not all the changes facing managers in this new environment are so easy to grasp.

It is, for example, much harder to define strategic business units when quite different businesses share a common manufacturing core. As the allocation of manufacturing costs and overhead comes increasingly to depend on transfer pricing, conventional accounting methods like ROI for assessing business performance are of ever more limited usefulness. Although the structure of an organization—its organization chart—may look the same, what lies behind the chart is really a joint venture in manufacturing in which production planning is centralized but product design, research, marketing, and sales diverge.

Philips N. Without computers, its factories could not hold enough tub files, index cards, clerks, and floor space to handle that many parts. Similarly, CAD technology enabled Boeing to develop several complex aircraft simultaneously.

Other examples abound. Ford uses CAD systems with NC metalworking machinery to produce fender molds without the time-consuming step of first making wooden models.

Gobain designs elaborate perfume and liquor bottles using computers that—by allowing for precise volume control—have made possible a sevenfold increase in the productivity of designers and a sharp reduction in the turnaround time from design to manufacture.

Workers can lay out circuits, verify them, test them by simulation, and consider cost-performance trade-offs before any resources get committed to manufacturing. Today, without computer assistance, no electronics manufacturer could afford to design such dense circuitry by hand or to absorb the cost of unavoidable errors.

We suggest only that manufacturing decisions now carry major companywide strategic implications. As sophisticated information systems integrate the work of production from design to implementation, manufacturing inevitably comes to rely more on science than on art. And as information accumulates—remember, these are real-time, real-world data, not textbook formulas or engineering guesstimates—it becomes easier to collect more data, make forecasts, remove bottlenecks, schedule operations, and optimize, monitor, and control the system.

Lockheed-Georgia is installing an advanced direct numerically controlled DNC tool system that will continually gather performance data on coolant temperature, vibration, spindle speed, motor loading, cutter wear, cutting tool temperature, and the like from 20 to sensors on each machine tool.

Workers can use this information to predict failures and then shut down machines for routine maintenance before the failures occur. Further, if a machining process takes more time than anticipated, the information will help pinpoint difficulties. From parts codes stored in a computer, Lockheed can generate plans that specify the sequence of manufacturing steps, tools, machining speeds and feeds, and worktime needed to produce a certain part or tool.

And these insights, in turn, make possible the marriage of new methods and standard manufacturing needs. As much research has shown, products often come into being as custom, specialty items and then gradually become standardized and compete on price. As the product becomes more widely understood and accepted, it tends to move toward commodity status—as stainless steel did after World War II.

The new process technology works against this trend toward price-based competition and market homogenization and, instead, gives renewed emphasis to market segmentation, competition on perceived special options, and customization. Tailoring products such as integrated circuits to individual preferences regenerates competition on product characteristics, not simply on price. Awareness of these possibilities adds breadth to strategic decisions about manufacturing and manufacturing technology.

In the past, custom products necessarily meant higher costs, but custom production no longer need be prohibitively expensive, nor need it depend on highly skilled production workers. Design and programming are now the keys, along with the ability to integrate a deeper understanding of process capabilities into product design. Robert H. Steven C. William J. Abernathy, Kim B. Clark, and Alan M. Hayes and Steven C. Alfred D. Chandler, Jr.

Paul R. As Exhibit II suggests, flexibility and volume constraints still affect manufacturing decisions, but the achievable ranges for both have changed and their consequences are longer-lived. Consider, for example, one of these decisions, the choice of process configuration, which can rest on technologies that are:. Independent of the design of the product and so can be used for many different products and designs simple manual tools, stand-alone NC tools, and job shops, for example.

Flexible enough to accommodate a range of product designs within a single configuration mass production lines for different automobile models.

Dedicated to a single product design transfer line in a chemical plant.

This glossary is intended as a practical and easy-to-use guide to common terms used in the advanced manufacturing industry. While we have made every effort to present current and accurate definitions, the glossary should be considered as a resource and not as an authoritative reference. Because the industry is ever evolving and complex, it is impractical to include every applicable term.

Of late, business press and management seminars have been alive with the promise that leading-edge production technology will restore the competitive cost position of American industry. Less well appreciated, however, are the far-reaching effects that such process advances will have on the underlying structure of manufacturing operations. Heightened flexibility, shorter production runs, more customized products, […]. Heightened flexibility, shorter production runs, more customized products, faster responses to changes in market demand, greater control and accuracy of processes, quicker throughout—all these and more will inevitably result if managers apply the new technology well. With a clear sense of the challenges ahead, the authors provide a framework for thinking about those consequences.

Manufacturing of the International Space Station

NCBI Bookshelf. The modern manufacture of paints, which are generally made in batches, involves three major steps: i mixing and grinding of raw materials; ii tinting shading and thinning; and iii filling operations US Environmental Protection Agency, , as illustrated in Figure 1. Process for manufacturing solvent-based paints a. To produce a batch of paints, manufacturers first load an appropriate amount of pigment, resin and various liquid chemicals into a roller mill, which is a large, hollow, rotating steel cylinder.

Inspection Checklists - Sample Checklist for Manufacturing Facilities

Publishes in-depth articles on labor subjects, current labor statistics, information about current labor contracts, and book reviews. Strana Obsah Comparison of projected simulated and actual employment in selected occupations. Furmance tenders smelters and pourers 6 3 3 30 4 9 23 3 8 67 5 5 Meatcutters and butchers except. Shipping and receiving clerks 0 0 67 1 13 5 15 5 33 2.

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Leading authors identify key issues and questions and future trends for further research and present their findings so that, where appropriate, they are relevant to the needs of policymakers. Using the city as a unifying structure, the Handbook provides an holistic appreciation of urban structure and change, and of the theories by which we understand the structure, development and changing character of cities. His research interests focus on the political processes driving urban change and, in particular, under what conditions local participation can contribute to the making of more inclusive and democratic cities. Recent projects have included the role of community participation in the installation of public art, and the limitations to public participation in the post-political city. Handbook of Urban Studies. SAGE , The Handbook of Urban Studies provides the first comprehensive, up-to-date account of the urban condition, relevant to a wide readership from academics to researchers and policymakers. It provides a theoretically and empirically informed account embracing all the different disciplines contributing to urban studies. Strana

Manufacturing

Quality control QC is a process through which a business seeks to ensure that product quality is maintained or improved with either reduced or zero errors. Quality control requires the business to create an environment in which both management and employees strive for perfection. This is done by training personnel, creating benchmarks for product quality and testing products to check for statistically significant variations.

Hundreds of contractors [1] working for the five space agencies were assigned the task of fabricating the modules, trusses, experiments and other hardware elements for the station. The fact that the project involved the co-operation of fifteen countries working together created engineering challenges that had to be overcome: most notably the differences in language, culture and politics, but also engineering processes, management, measuring standards and communication; to ensure that all elements connect together and function according to plan. The ISS agreement program also called for the station components to be made highly durable and versatile — as it is intended to be used by astronauts indefinitely.

Easy-to-read, question-and-answer fact sheets covering a wide range of workplace health and safety topics, from hazards to diseases to ergonomics to workplace promotion. Download the free OSH Answers app. Search all fact sheets:. The examples outlined below do not list all the possible items for manufacturing facilities. The best checklist for your workplace is one that has been developed for your specific needs. Whatever the format of the checklist, provide space for the inspectors' signatures and the date. Add a badge to your website or intranet so your workers can quickly find answers to their health and safety questions. Although every effort is made to ensure the accuracy, currency and completeness of the information, CCOHS does not guarantee, warrant, represent or undertake that the information provided is correct, accurate or current. CCOHS is not liable for any loss, claim, or demand arising directly or indirectly from any use or reliance upon the information. OSH Answers Fact Sheets Easy-to-read, question-and-answer fact sheets covering a wide range of workplace health and safety topics, from hazards to diseases to ergonomics to workplace promotion.

Manufacture of general purpose machinery. Manufacture of engines and turbines, except aircraft, vehicle and cycle engines. Manufacture of fluid power equipment. Manufacture of other pumps and compressors. Manufacture of other taps and valves.

How Should You Organize Manufacturing?

This guideline is aimed at employers, engineers, designers, manufacturers and distributors of machinery. WorkSafe has also developed a set of fact sheets for specific machinery. Though relevant to employers, these fact sheets are mostly aimed at operators and employees. While this guidance has not been updated to reflect current work health and safety legislation the Health and Safety at Work Act and regulations , it may still contain relevant information and practices to keep workers and others healthy and safe. Please read this guidance in conjunction with all relevant industry standards that apply to you as a PCBU. This guidance will be progressively reviewed and either updated, replaced with other guidance, or revoked. The Best Practice Guidelines for the Safe Use of Machinery outlines the hazards that come with using machinery in the workplace, potential injuries and how best to control these hazards. When using this guideline, consider the unique demands of your workplace and industry; there may be other hazards and risks not covered in this guideline. The HSE Act and HSE Regulations place responsibilities on many different persons, including machinery and plant designers, manufacturers, suppliers, installers and operators, employers and owners of machinery.

Safe use of machinery

Contact us About us Legal disclaimer. Word for word. AFP News. Aerospace Industry In India. Indian industry today is on the threshold of entering into a new era where it will assume greater responsibility in making the nation self-reliant in Defence Production. Not only are the profits soaring, the sector is also making its presence felt abroad as many Indian firms are becoming transnational companies. The Indian manufacturing sector is internationally competitive with international quality standards, efficiency and manufacturing facilities.

Quality Control

Environmental and Occupational Medicine. William N. Rom , Steven B. The book offers accurate, current information on the history, causes, prevention, and treatment of a wide range of environmental and occupational diseases and includes numerous case studies.

28 - Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.

Among the characteristics of a company that shape corporate and therefore manufacturing strategy are its dominant orientation market or product , pattern of diversification product, market, or process , attitude toward growth acceptance of low growth rate , and choice between competitive strategies high profit margins versus high output volumes. Once the basic attitudes or priorities are established, […].

Plan for Economies of Scope

This subclass includes: - manufacture of air or vacuum pumps - manufacture of pumps for liquids whether or not fitted with a measuring device - manufacture of pumps designed for fitting to internal combustion engines: oil, water and fuel pumps for motor vehicles etc. This class also includes: - manufacture of hand pumps This subclass excludes: - manufacture of hydraulic and pneumatic equipment, see

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