An action-oriented set of methods, mindsets and thought starters to help innovators design circular solutions that are fit for the future. The New Plastics Economy is an ambitious, three-year initiative to build momentum towards a plastics system that works. Architect Thomas Rau worked with Philips to purchase light as a service. The end result was a bespoke 'pay-per-lux' intelligent lighting system to fit the requirements of the space, at a manageable price. Philips retain control over the items they produce, enabling better maintenance, reconditioning and recovery.
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Tracking BuildingsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: 1940s GENERAL ELECTRIC DOCUMENTARY MANUFACTURE OF MAZDA LAMPS & LIGHT BULBS 65784
Lamp , a device for producing illumination , consisting originally of a vessel containing a wick soaked in combustible material, and subsequently such other light-producing instruments as gas and electric lamps.
The lamp was invented at least as early as 70, bce. Originally it consisted of a hollowed-out rock filled with moss or some other absorbent material that was soaked with animal fat and ignited. In the Mediterranean area and the Middle East , the earliest lamp had a shell shape.
Originally, actual shells were used, with sections cut out to provide space for the lighting area; later these were replaced by pottery , alabaster, or metal lamps shaped to resemble their natural prototypes. Another basic type of primitive lamp, found in ancient Egypt and China, was the saucer lamp. Made of pottery or bronze , it was sometimes provided with a spike in the centre of the declivity to support the wick, which was used to control the rate of burning. Another version had a wick channel, which allowed the burning surface of the wick to hang over the edge.
The latter type became common in Africa and spread into East Asia as well. In ancient Greece lamps did not begin to appear until the 7th century bce , when they replaced torches and braziers.
Indeed, the very word lamp is derived from the Greek lampas, meaning a torch. The pottery version of a Greek lamp was shaped like a shallow cup, with one or more spouts or nozzles in which the wick burned; it had a circular hole in the top for filling and a carrying handle. Such lamps usually were covered with a heat-resisting red or black glaze. A more expensive type was produced in bronze. The standard form had a handle with a ring for the finger and a crescent above for the thumb.
Hanging lamps made of bronze also became popular. The Romans introduced a new system of manufacturing terra-cotta lamps, using two molds and then joining the parts together. In metal, shapes became more complex, sometimes assuming animal or vegetable forms; very large versions for use in circuses and other public places appeared during the 1st century ce.
Very little information is available about medieval lamps, but it would appear that such as existed were of the open, saucer type, and considerably inferior in performance to the closed lamps of the Romans. The great step forward in the evolution of the lamp occurred in Europe in the 18th century with the introduction of a central burner, emerging from a closed container through a metal tube and controllable by means of a ratchet.
This advance coincided with the discovery that the flame produced could be intensified by aeration and a glass chimney. Until the late 18th century, the primary fuels burned in lamps included vegetable oils such as olive oil and tallow, beeswax, fish oil , and whale oil. With the drilling of the first well for petroleum oil in , the kerosene lamp paraffin in British usage grew popular.
In the meantime, however, coal gas and then natural gas for illumination were coming into wide use. Although coal gas was denounced as unsafe, it won increasing favour for street lighting, and by early in the 19th century most cities in the United States and Europe had gaslighted streets and increasing numbers of homes converted to the new fuel. The early gas lamps made use of a simple burner in which the yellow light of the flame itself was the source of the illumination.
But during the s a new form of burner was introduced in which a controlled amount of air was admitted to the gas current, producing a high-temperature but nonluminous flame that heated a refractive, noncombustible material to a very high temperature.
This became the source of light; the higher the temperature of the material, the whiter the colour of the light and the greater the output. By the s, a woven network of cotton threads impregnated with thorium and cerium salts was the standard light-emitting material used in gas lamps. The development of the electric lamp at the turn of the 19th century stemmed the trend toward gas lamps, and by the conversion of gas fixtures for use with electricity had begun.
Soon electricity was rapidly replacing gas for general illuminating purposes. In England and Europe, however, gas enjoyed wide use for a number of years longer. Modern lamps and lighting began with the invention of the incandescent electric lamp about An incandescent lamp is one in which a filament gives off light when heated to incandescence by an electric current. The incandescent lamp was not the first lamp to use electricity, however; lighting devices employing an electric arc struck between electrodes of carbon had been developed early in the 19th century.
These arc lamps, as they were called, were reliable but cumbersome devices that were best used for street lighting. In Pavel Yablochkov , a Russian electrical engineer, introduced the Yablochkov candle.
This was an arc lamp having parallel carbon rods separated by porcelain clay , which vaporized during burning of the arc. Alternating current was used to ensure equal rates of consumption of the two points of the rods. This lamp was widely used in street lighting for a time. In the decades before the Edison incandescent carbon-filament lamp was patented in , numerous scientists had directed their efforts toward producing a satisfactory incandescent lighting system.
In Swan had devised carbon filaments of paper; later he used cotton thread treated with sulfuric acid and mounted in glass vacuum bulbs only possible after The final development of the incandescent lamp was the result of concurrent work by Swan and Thomas A.
These lamps by Swan and Edison consisted of a filament of carbon wire in an evacuated glass bulb, two ends of the wire being brought out through a sealed cap and thence to the electric supply. When the supply was connected, the filament glowed and, by virtue of the vacuum, did not oxidize away quickly as it would have done in air. The invention of a completely practical lamp ordinarily is credited to Edison, who began studying the problem in and within a year and a half had made more than 1, experiments.
On October 21, , Edison lighted a lamp containing a carbonized thread for the filament. The lamp burned steadily for two days. Soon carbonized bamboo was found acceptable and was used as the filament material. Extruded cellulose filaments were introduced by Swan in Concurrently, recognizing that the series wiring systems then used for arc lights would not be satisfactory for incandescent lamps, Edison directed much effort toward the development of dynamos and other necessary equipment for multiple circuits.
The most important subsequent improvement in the incandescent lamp was the development of metallic filaments, particularly of tungsten.
Tungsten filaments quickly replaced ones made of carbon, tantalum, and metalized carbon in the early s, and they are still used in most filament lamps today. Tungsten is highly suitable for such lamps because of all the materials suitable for drawing into filament wires, it has the highest melting point. This means that lamps can operate at higher temperatures and therefore emit both whiter light and more light for the same electrical input than was possible with less durable and less refractory carbon filaments.
The first tungsten-filament lamps, introduced in the United States in , made use of pressed tungsten. By a process patented in for producing drawn tungsten filaments had been discovered. The early tungsten lamps, like carbon lamps, suffered from the migration of filament molecules to the glass bulb, causing a blackening of the bulb, a loss in light output, and progressive thinning of the filament until it broke.
About it was found that the introduction of a small amount of inert gas argon or nitrogen reduced migration and enabled the filament to be run at a higher temperature, giving a whiter light, higher efficiency , and longer life. Further improvements followed, including the development of the coiled filament. Article Media.
Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Electric lamps Electric discharge lamps Modern electrical light sources. Lamp lighting. See Article History. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Load Next Page. More About. History of Lamps and Other Lighting Instruments.
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This paper presents a historic overview, starting with a fireplace as source for illumination via the carbon filament lamp and ending with the IR-coated halogen lamp. In conclusion, a comparison of the modern incandescent lamp with alternative light sources is given. But maybe he simply ordered his servant Friedrich Krause to open the shutters. Unfortunately, it cannot be clarified anymore. But since the beginning of time the human race cannot do without artificial lighting. Table 1 shows a condensed time travel prior to the incandescent lamp.
Industrial LED Lighting
Lamp , a device for producing illumination , consisting originally of a vessel containing a wick soaked in combustible material, and subsequently such other light-producing instruments as gas and electric lamps. The lamp was invented at least as early as 70, bce. Originally it consisted of a hollowed-out rock filled with moss or some other absorbent material that was soaked with animal fat and ignited. In the Mediterranean area and the Middle East , the earliest lamp had a shell shape. Originally, actual shells were used, with sections cut out to provide space for the lighting area; later these were replaced by pottery , alabaster, or metal lamps shaped to resemble their natural prototypes.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: These Engineers Want to 3D Print an Entire Rocket in 60 Days
Lighting in industrial spaces manufacturing, engineering, processing, warehouses, logistics and sheds is extremely important to the users in those areas, and the work that is being carried out in them. It also has a direct impact on productivity, well-being of staff, and sometimes even health and vitality. Traditionally, industrial lighting has demanded energy intensive, high powered lighting solutions, in the form of metal halide, sodium and mercury-vapour light sources. Until now. With the development of high powered LED lighting, there is the option to have very powerful lighting using a fraction of the energy, driving cost-reduction through energy and maintenance savings. Lighting at heights has also proved very costly when it fails, which is another benefit of LED, with the ultra-long lifespans and added reliability of premium LED products. Daylight Availability — many industrial buildings have the opportunity to use natural daylight. Either by special roof construction, or by replacing roof panels with translucent panels to let the light in. The objective for any daylight benefits should be to provide a diffused daylight, not direct sunlight which can result in glare and strong shadows.
Incandescent light bulb
Long lasting LED lighting from Philips can have an enormous impact on your bottom line, reducing the operational costs through reduced downtime and lower energy consumption while keeping your employees safer on the factory floor, and improving productivity. With the rising cost of energy and ever increasing demand for high efficiency lighting, the LED market is rapidly expanding. LED's promise high efficiency, but the cost is still higher than traditional lighting.
Our modern lives would be inconceivable without abundant, cheap electric light, which for more than a century has illuminated homes, streets, workplaces, restaurants, theatres, and stores, extending both our work and our leisure time. And although the illuminated city, and the glamour and liveliness of its nights, has come to define what it means to be urban and urbane, most of us almost never think about light, since however much of it we desire — often more than we need — is usually readily available at the flick of a switch. This thoughtlessness, and the freedom light grants us, is something humans couldn't dream of even a few hundred years ago. In the late 18th century, lamps were still rudimentary, depending on the same technology that had illuminated Roman homes and even the caves of the Pleistocene: a vessel — of stone, clay, or metal — with some kind of animal or vegetable fat as fuel, and a wick. Except for the very wealthy, or for those living in places where fuel might be abundant, light was precious and used sparingly, in part because all fuel for light could also be used for food. John Smeaton, in his account of building the Eddystone Lighthouse off the coast of Plymouth, wrote that he "found it a matter of complaint through the country — that the light keepers had at various times been reduced to the necessity of eating the candles". All light had to be tended continually. It stank and it smoked. And the open flame was always a danger. Countless conflagrations were caused by a tipped-over candle or lamp, so much so that in some medieval cities residents were required to put out their cooking fires — often the only interior light many could afford — after dinner. Not only households were dark.
The 12 biggest trends in lighting technology right now
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Incandescent lighting and powder metallurgical manufacturing of tungsten wire
An incandescent light bulb , incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated until it glows. The filament is enclosed in a bulb to protect the filament from oxidation. Current is supplied to the filament by terminals or wires embedded in the glass. A bulb socket provides mechanical support and electrical connections. Incandescent bulbs are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, light output, and voltage ratings, from 1. They require no external regulating equipment , have low manufacturing costs , and work equally well on either alternating current or direct current. As a result, the incandescent bulb became widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps, car headlamps , and flashlights , and for decorative and advertising lighting. Some applications use the heat generated by the filament, such as incubators , brooding boxes for poultry ,  heat lights for reptile tanks ,  infrared heating for industrial heating and drying processes, lava lamps , and the Easy-Bake Oven toy. Quartz tube heat lamps are used for industrial porcesses such as paint curing or for space heating. Incandescent bulbs typically have short lifetimes compared with other types of lighting; around 1, hours for home light bulbs versus typically 10, hours for compact fluorescents and 20,—30, hours for lighting LEDs.
From the earliest periods of history until the beginning of the 19th century, fire was man's primary source of light. This light was produced through different means—torches, candles , oil and gas lamps.
So sit back and bone up on the technology trends to watch. You only have to add a few sensors or cameras and some kind of data connection. But what happens if they fail early? Or a better, more efficient module comes on the market?
Lighting efficiency has improved considerably since The phase-down of incandescent lamps is prompting global technology shifts towards more efficient technologies such as fluorescent lamps especially in developing countries in Asia , although it has also led to lamps of similar low efficacy, such as halogens, gaining popularity. LED sales now appear to have overtaken fluorescent sales in the residential sector, and that share is expected to continue expanding.