Chapter 7. Telecommunications, the Internet, and Information System Architecture. The electronic transmission of information over distances, called telecommunications, has become virtually inseparable from computers: Computers and telecommunications create value together. Components of a Telecommunications Network. Telecommunications are the means of electronic transmission of information over distances. The information may be in the form of voice telephone calls, data, text, images, or video.
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- What Is the Telecommunications Sector?
- Types of Transmission Media
- What is 5G? The business guide to next-generation wireless technology
- Building under power lines codes
- Satcom Ppt
- U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
- Engineering The Communications System For Apollo 11
- Power Lines In India
InternationalVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Dead Space - Ambience - Communications Array
An electrical grid , electric grid or power grid , is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers. It consists of: . Electrical grids vary in size from covering a single building through national grids which cover whole countries to transnational grids which can cross continents.
Power stations connected to grids are often located near energy resources such as a source of fuel or to take advantage of renewable energy resources, and away from heavily-populated areas. A bulk-power transmission network is therefore used to move the power long distances, sometimes across international boundaries, until it reaches its wholesale customer usually the organisation that owns the local electric power distribution network.
The electric power is therefore stepped up to a high voltage for the electric power transmission system. On arrival at a substation, the power will be stepped down from a transmission level voltage to a distribution-level voltage.
As it exits the substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon arrival at the service location, the power is stepped down again from the distribution voltage to the required service voltage s.
Although electrical grids are widespread, as of [update] 1. Electrical grids can be prone to malicious intrusion or attack; thus, there is a need for electric grid security. Also as electric grids modernize and introduce computers, cyber threats also start to become a security risk. Early electric energy was produced near the device or service requiring that energy.
In the s, electricity competed with steam, hydraulics, and especially coal gas. Coal gas was first produced on customer's premises but later evolved into gasification plants that enjoyed economies of scale. In the industrialized world, cities had networks of piped gas, used for lighting. But gas lamps produced poor light, wasted heat, made rooms hot and smoky, and gave off hydrogen and carbon monoxide. They also posed a fire hazard. In the s electric lighting soon became advantageous compared to gas lighting.
Electric utility companies took advantage of economies of scale and moved to centralized power generation, distribution, and system management. The bill was the first step towards an integrated electricity system. This started operating as a national system, the National Grid , in In the United States in the s, utilities formed joint-operations to share peak load coverage and backup power.
In , with the passage of the Public Utility Holding Company Act USA , electric utilities were recognized as public goods of importance and were given outlined restrictions and regulatory oversight of their operations.
The Energy Policy Act of required transmission line owners to allow electric generation companies open access to their network   and led to a restructuring of how the electric industry operated in an effort to create competition in power generation. No longer were electric utilities built as vertical monopolies, where generation, transmission and distribution were handled by a single company.
Now, the three stages could be split among various companies, in an effort to provide fair accessibility to high voltage transmission. In France, electrification began in the s, with communes in , and 36, in By , the grid is the world's most dense.
During the s, the kV network, the new European standard, was implemented. Grids are designed to supply voltages at largely constant amplitudes. This has to be achieved with varying demand, variable reactive loads, and even nonlinear loads, with electricity provided by generators and distribution and transmission equipment that are not perfectly reliable.
Transmission networks are complex with redundant pathways. For example, see the map of the United States' right high-voltage transmission network. The structure, or " topology " of a grid can vary depending on the constraints of budget, requirements for system reliability, and the load and generation characteristics. The physical layout is often forced by what land is available and its geology. Distribution networks are divided into two types, radial or network. The simplest topology for a distribution or transmission grid is a radial structure.
This is a tree shape where power from a large supply radiates out into progressively lower voltage lines until the destination homes and businesses are reached. However, single failures can take out entire branches of the tree. Most transmission grids offer the reliability that more complex mesh networks provide. The expense of mesh topologies restrict their application to transmission and medium voltage distribution grids.
Redundancy allows line failures to occur and power is simply rerouted while workmen repair the damaged and deactivated line. In cities and towns of North America, the grid tends to follow the classic radially fed design. A substation receives its power from the transmission network, the power is stepped down with a transformer and sent to a bus from which feeders fan out in all directions across the countryside. These feeders carry three-phase power , and tend to follow the major streets near the substation.
As the distance from the substation grows, the fanout continues as smaller laterals spread out to cover areas missed by the feeders. This tree-like structure grows outward from the substation, but for reliability reasons, usually contains at least one unused backup connection to a nearby substation.
This connection can be enabled in case of an emergency, so that a portion of a substation's service territory can be alternatively fed by another substation.
A synchronous grid or an "interconnection" is a group of distribution areas all operating with three phase alternating current AC frequencies synchronized so that peaks occur at virtually the same time.
This allows transmission of AC power throughout the area, connecting a large number of electricity generators and consumers and potentially enabling more efficient electricity markets and redundant generation. Interconnection maps are shown of North America right and Europe below left.
A large failure in one part of the grid - unless quickly compensated for - can cause current to re-route itself to flow from the remaining generators to consumers over transmission lines of insufficient capacity, causing further failures.
One downside to a widely connected grid is thus the possibility of cascading failure and widespread power outage. A central authority is usually designated to facilitate communication and develop protocols to maintain a stable grid. For example, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation gained binding powers in the United States in , and has advisory powers in the applicable parts of Canada and Mexico. The U. Some areas, for example rural communities in Alaska , do not operate on a large grid, relying instead on local diesel generators.
In a synchronous grid all the generators must run at the same frequency , and must stay very nearly in phase with each other and the grid.
For rotating generators, a local governor regulates the driving torque, maintaining constant speed as loading changes. Droop speed control ensures that multiple parallel generators share load changes in proportion to their rating. Generation and consumption must be balanced across the entire grid, because energy is consumed as it is produced.
Energy is stored in the immediate short term by the rotational kinetic energy of the generators. Small deviations from the nominal system frequency are very important in regulating individual generators and assessing the equilibrium of the grid as a whole. When the grid is heavily loaded, the frequency slows, and governors adjust their generators so that more power is output droop speed control. When the grid is lightly loaded the grid frequency runs above the nominal frequency, and this is taken as an indication by Automatic Generation Control systems across the network that generators should reduce their output.
In addition, there's often central control, which can change the parameters of the AGC systems over timescales of a minute or longer to further adjust the regional network flows and the operating frequency of the grid. For timekeeping purposes, the nominal frequency will be allowed to vary in the short term, but are adjusted to prevent line-operated clocks from gaining or losing significant time over the course of a whole 24 hour period.
An entire synchronous grid runs at the same frequency, neighbouring grids would not be synchronised even if they run at the same nominal frequency. High-voltage direct current lines or variable-frequency transformers can be used to connect two alternating current interconnection networks which are not synchronized with each other. This provides the benefit of interconnection without the need to synchronize an even wider area.
The demand, or load on an electrical grid is the total electrical power being removed by the users of the grid. Baseload is the minimum load on the grid over any given period, peak demand is the maximum load. Historically, baseload was commonly met by equipment that was cheap to run, that ran continuously for weeks or months at a time, but globally this is becoming less common. The peak demand requirements are sometimes produced by peaking plants that are generators optimised to come on-line quickly.
The sum of the power outputs of generators on the grid is the production of the grid, typically measured in gigawatts GW. The total energy produced is the integral of the power outputs, which is measured in gigawatt hours GWh.
It might be expected that demand and production might be equal, however, in practice power is lost in transmission lines and transformers in the transmission grid, so the demand plus the losses is equal to the production.
Where power is being exported or imported to neighbouring grids that power is often considered as a demand or production respectively. The sum of the maximum power outputs nameplate capacity of the generators attached to an electrical grid might be considered to be the capacity of the grid. However, in practice, they are never run flat out simultaneously.
Typically, some generators are kept running at lower output powers spinning reserve to deal with failures as well as variation in demand. In addition generators can be off-line for maintenance or other reasons, such as availability of energy inputs fuel, water, wind, sun etc. Firm capacity is the maximum power output on a grid that is immediately available over a given time period, and is a far more useful figure.
Grid-connected equipment's behaviors are governed by a grid code which is a specification generally provided by the network operator. This ensures the grid stability and in particular specifies the correct behavior in off-nominal scenarios. Electric utilities between regions are many times interconnected for improved economy and reliability.
Electrical interconnectors allow for economies of scale , allowing energy to be purchased from large, efficient sources. Utilities can draw power from generator reserves from a different region to ensure continuing, reliable power and diversify their loads. Interconnection also allows regions to have access to cheap bulk energy by receiving power from different sources.
For example, one region may be producing cheap hydro power during high water seasons, but in low water seasons, another area may be producing cheaper power through wind, allowing both regions to access cheaper energy sources from one another during different times of the year.
Neighboring utilities also help others to maintain the overall system frequency and also help manage tie transfers between utility regions. Electricity Interconnection Level EIL of a grid is the ratio of the total interconnector power to the grid divided by the installed production capacity of the grid. Grid energy storage also called large-scale energy storage is a collection of methods used to store electrical energy on a large scale within an electrical power grid.
Electrical energy is stored during times when production especially from intermittent power plants such as renewable electricity sources such as wind power , tidal power , solar power exceeds consumption, and returned to the grid when production falls below consumption. As of [update] , the largest form of grid energy storage is dammed hydroelectricity , with both conventional hydroelectric generation as well as pumped storage hydroelectricity.
Alternatives include rail energy storage , where rail cars carrying large weights are moved up or down a section of inclined rail track, storing or releasing energy as a result; or disused oil-well potential energy storage, where weights are raised or lowered in a deep, decommissioned oil well.
Developments in battery storage have enabled commercially viable projects to store energy during peak production and release during peak demand. Two alternatives to grid storage are the use of peaking power plants to fill in supply gaps and demand response to shift load to other times.
In data communication terminology, a transmission medium is a physical path between the transmitter and the receiver i. Transmission Media is broadly classified into the following types:. Guided Media: It is also referred to as Wired or Bounded transmission media. Signals being transmitted are directed and confined in a narrow pathway by using physical links. Generally, several such pairs are bundled together in a protective sheath. They are the most widely used Transmission Media.
Note to paragraph a 1 i A : The types of installations covered by this paragraph include the generation, transmission, and distribution installations of electric utilities, as well as equivalent installations of industrial establishments. Subpart S of this part covers supplementary electric generating equipment that is used to supply a workplace for emergency, standby, or similar purposes only. See paragraph a 1 i B of this section. Note to paragraph a 2 ii : For the purposes of this section, a person must have the training required by paragraph a 2 ii of this section to be considered a qualified person. Note to paragraph a 2 v C : The Occupational Safety and Health Administration considers tasks that are performed less often than once per year to necessitate retraining before the performance of the work practices involved. Note 1 to paragraph a 2 viii : Though they are not required by this paragraph, employment records that indicate that an employee has successfully completed the required training are one way of keeping track of when an employee has demonstrated proficiency. Note 2 to paragraph a 2 viii : For an employee with previous training, an employer may determine that that employee has demonstrated the proficiency required by this paragraph using the following process:.
What Is the Telecommunications Sector?
Satellites by Chris Woodford. Last updated: November 16, E yes in the sky, space mirrors bouncing phone calls round Earth, heavenly compasses helping us home—these are just three of the things that satellites do for us. When you gaze through the clouds on a brilliant blue day, you might catch sight of a plane or two leaving vapor trails in its wake. But you're unlikely to see all the thousands of meticulously engineered satellites, some as small as your hand , some as huge as trucks, spinning in orbits high above your head. What exactly is a satellite and how does it work? Let's take a closer look!
Electricity is generated at power plants and moves through a complex system, sometimes called the grid , of electricity substations, transformers, and power lines that connect electricity producers and consumers. Most local grids are interconnected for reliability and commercial purposes, forming larger, more dependable networks that enhance the coordination and planning of electricity supply. In the United States, the entire electricity grid consists of hundreds of thousands of miles of high-voltage power lines and millions of miles of low-voltage power lines with distribution transformers that connect thousands of power plants to hundreds of millions of electricity customers all across the country. The origin of the electricity that consumers purchase varies. Some electric utilities generate all the electricity they sell using just the power plants they own. Other utilities purchase electricity directly from other utilities, power marketers, and independent power producers or from a wholesale market organized by a regional transmission reliability organization. The retail structure of the electricity industry varies from region to region. The company selling you power may be a not-for-profit municipal electric utility; an electric cooperative owned by its members; a private, for-profit electric utility owned by stockholders often called an investor-owned utility ; or in some states, you may purchase electricity through a power marketer. A few federally owned power authorities—including the Bonneville Power Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority , among others—also generate, buy, sell, and distribute power.
Types of Transmission Media
Search Space Systems Openings. They built the communications transponder on board Apollo 11 which transmitted Armstrong's voice and video to Earth. Today, our engineers are working to make history again.
Satcom Ppt. To make a telephone call, send an. Globalstar offers a suite of solutions tailored to meet the needs of all of our customers. A recent study issued by Euroconsult estimates. What are Communication Satellites?. PPT's are provided at the end of each article for free download. PEO C3T develops, acquires, fields and supports the Army's tactical communications network - a critical Army modernization priority that brings information dominance to current and future Soldiers. You'll get news about our PowerPoint-enhancing product line — including free updates, new product announcements and exclusive special offers. Satellite communications ppt 1. In satellite communication, microwave signal is transmitted from a transmitter on earth to the satellite at space. Blanco and Marc N.
What is 5G? The business guide to next-generation wireless technology
The most important promise made by the proprietors of 5G wireless technology -- the telecommunications service providers, the transmission equipment makers, the antenna manufacturers, and even the server manufacturers -- is this: Once all of 5G's components are fully deployed and operational, you will not need any kind of wire or cable to deliver communications or even entertainment service to your mobile device, to any of your fixed devices HDTV, security system, smart appliances , or to your automobile. If everything works, 5G would be the optimum solution to the classic "last mile" problem: Delivering complete digital connectivity from the tip of the carrier network to the customer, without drilling another hole through the wall. Also: Should 5G be in your IT budget? The "if" in that previous sentence remains colossal. The whole point of "Gs" in wireless standards, originally, was to emphasize the ease of transition between one wireless system of delivery and a newer one -- or at least make that transition seem reasonably pain-free.
Building under power lines codes
Power Lines In India. Power Line Filters are available at Mouser Electronics from industry leading manufacturers. If the amount of sag is very low, the conductor is exposed to a higher mechanical tension which may break the conductor. Smaller transformers reduce the voltage again to make the power safe to use in our homes. While loss levels are still high, electricity losses in India are decreasing. Above-ground power lines grow in risk as climate changes Around the U. Knowing the frequency is important when.
Serial buses dot the landscape of embedded design. From displays to storage to peripherals, serial interfaces make communications possible. Many serial communication interfaces compete for use in embedded systems. The right serial interface for your system depends on several key factors.
U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
The telecommunication sector is made up of companies that make communication possible on a global scale, whether it is through the phone or the Internet, through airwaves or cables, through wires or wirelessly. These companies created the infrastructure that allows data in words, voice, audio or video to be sent anywhere in the world. The largest companies in the sector are telephone both wired and wireless operators, satellite companies, cable companies, and internet service providers. Not long ago, the telecommunications sector consisted of a club of big national and regional operators.
Engineering The Communications System For Apollo 11
An electrical grid , electric grid or power grid , is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers. It consists of: . Electrical grids vary in size from covering a single building through national grids which cover whole countries to transnational grids which can cross continents. Power stations connected to grids are often located near energy resources such as a source of fuel or to take advantage of renewable energy resources, and away from heavily-populated areas.
Power Lines In India
In telecommunication , a communications system or communication system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment DTE usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole. The components of a communications system serve a common purpose, are technically compatible, use common procedures, respond to controls, and operate in union. Telecommunications is a method of communication e.