Archaeology of Culture Contact and Colonialism in Spanish and Portuguese America contributes to disrupt the old grand narrative of cultural contact and colonialism in Spanish and Portuguese America in a wide and complete sense. This edited volume aims at exploring contact archaeology in the modern era. Archaeology has been exploring the interaction of peoples and cultures from early times, but only in the last few decades have cultural contact and material world been recognized as crucial elements to understanding colonialism and the emergence of modernity. Modern colonialism studies pose questions in need of broader answers. This volume explores these answers in Spanish and Portuguese America, comprising present-day Latin America and formerly Spanish territories now part of the United States.
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Roman Woodworking Home Roman Woodworking. Ulrich yale university press New Haven and London Published with assi All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, including illustrations, in any form beyond that copying permitted by Sections and of the U.
Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the public press , without written permission from the publishers. Designed by Gregg Chase. Ulrich p. Includes bibliographical references and index. Building, Wooden—Rome. Carpentry—History—To The paper in this book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources.
Introduction 1 2. The Roman Woodworker 6 3. The Tools of the Trade 13 4. Joints 59 5. Foundations 72 6. Framing and Walls 90 7. Wooden Flooring 8. Interior Woodwork Wheels Furniture and Veneers In that same year I was permitted to study traces of wood in buildings from Pompeii and Herculaneum by the Soprintendente of Pompeii, Baldassare Conticello. A highlight of a tour of collections in Britain in was an invitation to examine the Roman tools held in the Verulamium Museum, under the stewardship of the Keeper of Archaeology, Vivienne Holgate.
My time at the site included a visit to the storerooms at Herculaneum to examine the singular pieces of carbonized furniture conserved there; these were published that same year in a comprehensive study by Stefan Mols, who would later allow me to include some of his drawings and photographs in the present volume.
De Re Rust ica , De Arboribus, ca. Ennius, poet and playwright, — b. Ann ales , scenica English: Ennius C. Iulius Caesar, consul, general, dictator, —44 b. Porcius Cato, consul, censor, — b. English: Cato Fest. Valerius Catullus, poet, ca. Tullius Cicero, statesman, philosopher, —43 b.
Horatius Flaccus, poet, 65—8 b. Isidorus Hispalensis, bishop of Seville, sixth—seventh century Etymologiae or Origines , ca.
Saturae English: Juvenal Liv. Titus Livius, historian, 64 or 59 b. Annaeus Lucanus, poet, historian, a. Plinius Secundus, historian, ca. Plinius Caecilius Secundus, writer of literary letters, ca. English: Propertius Scaev. Annaeus Seneca, philosopher, poet, ca. Lucilius, poet, ca. English: Lucilius Lucr. Lucretius Carus, philosopher, ca.
Valerius Martialis, poet, ca. Ovidius Naso, poet, 43 b. Papinius Statius, poet, ca. Suetonius Tranquillus, biographer, ca. Cornelius Tacitus, historian, born ca. Titus Maccius Plautus, playwright, died ca. Septimius Florens Tertullianus, early Christian writer, ca. Theophrastus, Greek philosopher, ca.
Flaccus C. Valerius Flaccus, poet, died ca. Terentius Varro, lexicographer, —27 b. English: Varro Verg. Vergilius Maro, poet, 70—19 b. English: Virgil Vitr. HN Many large public structures, from bridges to theaters, were built of wood. The cultivation, harvesting, transportation, and working of wood in a world without heavy machinery or power tools must have employed many people.
Some of these were highly skilled. Indeed, Roman builders understood that, with the exception of the dome, spaces just as vast and unencumbered by interior columns as those covered with barrel or groin vaults could be spanned with wood. Transportation in the Roman world depended upon the skills of the woodworker.
Wood was the primary material used for all manner of carts, wagons, wheels, and, of 1 intr odu c tion course, merchant ships. Roman legions depended upon ready supplies of timber for military success. Timber not destined for the sawyer was employed for fuel. The importance of wood in the Roman world is easy to overlook for an obvious reason. Modern discoveries of wood in Roman contexts are extraordinary; the survival of wooden artifacts requires unusual circumstances of environment.
Plaster or concrete casts of decomposed wooden objects that have left imprints in fallen ash at Pompeii and Oplontis allow us to view ghostly images of wooden artifacts.
The wet subsoils of northern Europe and Great Britain have preserved waterlogged timbers and tools; shipwrecks also yield valuable information. At the opposite end of the environmental spectrum are the dry climates of Egypt and the Middle East, where wooden objects from many historical periods have survived to the present day. The rectangular cavities left by wooden structural members in the walls of brick and stone structures can still be seen, as can the imprints of wooden planks used to frame vaults of concrete.
No less valuable for the history of Roman woodworking is the literary record. The importance and pervasiveness of wooden objects in Roman life are clear from the many references preserved in the extant corpus of Latin—and contemporary Greek—literature. For the types of trees and their uses Pliny is our most important Latin source.
Although no botanist, Pliny studied and closely followed the works of pioneering Greek predecessors. No doubt the most important of these was the philosopher Theophrastus 2 intr odu c tion ca. Born four centuries later, Pliny a.
Such shortcomings notwithstanding, a book such as this would be far the poorer without any access to the ancient voice. In the glossary attached to this book the focus is upon Latin terminology, and, as will be evident, the language of the Romans for the practices of carpentry was as rich as the applications of the craft were varied.
Poetic sources are also important for terminology. Nevertheless, Roman woodworking has not been ignored. Other modern scholars were interested in famous structures for which ancient descriptions exist but no actual remains have been discovered. Meiggs was less concerned about technique than with the history of the timber trade in both Greek and Roman settings. His study includes not only an impressive compendium of ancient sources that address the topic of ancient woodworking, but vital commentary on the species of trees used and on the ambiguity that characterizes the categorization of trees provided by ancient writers of Greek and Latin.
The topic of ancient woodworking techniques has been addressed primarily by European scholars. Both Adam and Giuliani, like their predecessors, treat woodworking primarily in the context of architecture and only as part of a larger overview of ancient building techniques. Petrie and William Goodman Actual Roman tools, some in a pristine state with their original handles, can be seen in the regional museums of Europe and Great Britain.
Ongoing excavations in Britain, and especially London, have exposed tons of waterlogged timbers from the Roman period that have survived from both boats and buildings. The sheer volume of the material discovered here and elsewhere such as the prehistoric lakes region of northern Italy means that there is much still awaiting careful study. Greater emphasis will be placed on tangible evidence than on speculative reconstructions. At an early stage in the project it was decided not to integrate the subject of shipbuilding as a discrete topic.
Even with these self-imposed limitations, the present volume aspires to examine the language and the practice of Roman woodworking through the types of literary and archaeological evidence just described, in a way that a classicist, historian, or modern woodworker can understand. The main text of the book consists of an overview of the tools, raw materials, and applications of ancient woodworking as well as the careers of its practitioners.
Much of the filtration or purification plant of this heading is purely static equipment with no moving parts. The heading covers filters and purifiers of all types physical or mechanical, chemical, magnetic, electro-magnetic, electrostatic, etc. The heading covers not only large industrial plant, but also filters for internal combustion engines and small domestic appliances. The heading does not , however, include filter funnels, milk strainers, vessels, tanks, etc. B Machines for cleaning, sorting or grading eggs, fruit or other agricultural produce, other than machinery of heading
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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. September chestnut Castanea sativa in the Czech Republic. The appearance of Castanea sativa depended on the Accepted:
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glassFor the common composite material reinforced with glass fibers, see Fiberglass. For the glass fiber used to transmit information, see Optical fiber. Bundle of glass fibersGlass fiber or glass fibre is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass. Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling.
The Orders set out in the First Schedule to this Order are hereby revoked. Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers. Edible fruit and nuts; peel of melons or citrus fruit. Coffee, tea, mate and spices Cereals Products of the milling industry; malt and stal'ches ; gluten; inulin. Raw vegetable materials of a kind suitable for use in dyeing or in tanning; lacs; gums, resins and other vegetable saps and extracts. Vegetable plaiting and carving materials; vegetable pl'oducts not elsewhere specified or included. Ceramic products I Glass and glassware ' Any reference in a heading. Any reference I 0 goods of a given material or substance shitn be taken to include a reference to good consisting wholly or partly of such mat ial or substance. Where in a Note to a Section or Chapter it is provided that certain goods are not covered by that Section or Chapter, a reference being made parenthetically to another Section or Chapter or to a particular heading, the Note shall.
Archaeology of Culture Contact and Colonialism in Spanish and Portuguese America
Abrasive grains of fused alumina Abrasive grains of silicon carbide Abrasive grains, synthetic, others Abraive paper, n. Absorbent cotn Accelerars, electron pron, complete Accelerars, electron pron, complete-parts of Accelerars, rubber prepared Accordions etc. Accounting calculating machines Accoustic tiles of insulation boards Acetarsol B. Acetylsalicylic acid
Artefacts and environmental remains are abundant from archaeological excavations across Europe, but until now they have most commonly been used to accompany broader narratives built on historical sources and studies of topography and buildings, rather than being studied as important evidence in their own right. The papers in this volume aim to redress the balance by taking an environmental and artefact-based approach to life in medieval Europe. The contributions included here address central themes such as urban identities, the nature of towns and their relationship with their hinterlands, provisioning processes, and the role of ritual and religion in everyday life. Case studies from across Europe encourage a comparative approach between town and country, and provide a pan-European perspective to current debates. The volume is divided into four key parts: an exploration of the processes of provisioning; an assessment of the dynamics of urban population; an examination of domestic life; and a discussion of the status quaestionis and future potential of urban environmental archaeology. Together, these sections make a significant contribution to medieval archaeology and offer new and unique insights into the conditions of everyday life in medieval Europe. If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here:. Author: Ben Jervis , Lee G. Broderick , and Idoia Grau Sologestoa. Description Table of Content PDF Artefacts and environmental remains are abundant from archaeological excavations across Europe, but until now they have most commonly been used to accompany broader narratives built on historical sources and studies of topography and buildings, rather than being studied as important evidence in their own right.
Singapore Standard Industrial Classification - Statistics No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form including photocopying or storing it in any medium by electronic means and whether or nottransiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication without the prior writtenpermission of the copyright owner except in accordance with the provisions of the CopyrightAct Cap. The Actguarantees the confidentiality of information collected relating fromindividuals and companies. It spells out the legislative authority andresponsibility of the Chief Statistician. The adoption and use ofthese standards in the collection, analysis and dissemination of statistics ensureconsistency and comparability of data, facilitating relevant and meaningful analysis aswell as data sharing. The SSIC is usedfor censuses of population, household and establishment surveys and increasingly, inadministrative databases. It is reviewed and updatedregularly to reflect significant changes in the structure of the Singapore economy andthe emergence of new activities as well as to align with changes in the internationalstandard. This publication includes the industrial codes, scope and structure of theclassification as well as descriptions of the principles. To facilitate better understandingand appropriate use of the classification, detailed write-up is provided at the class fourdigit level. Inputs from otherministries and statutory boards have also been incorporated where appropriate.
Trade-marks Journal Vol. 63 No. 3234 - Innovation, Science and
- Слова лились потоком, словно ждали много лет, чтобы сорваться с его губ. - Я люблю. Я люблю. В этот момент в тридцати метрах от них, как бы отвергая мерзкие признания Стратмора, ТРАНСТЕКСТ издал дикий, душераздирающий вопль. Звук был совершенно новым - глубинным, зловещим, нарастающим, похожим на змею, выползающую из бездонной шахты.
Похоже, фреон не достиг нижней части корпуса. Коммандер отпустил Сьюзан и повернулся к своему детищу стоимостью два миллиарда долларов. Глаза его расширились от ужаса.
ALPHABETIC INDEX TO THE COMMODITIES SPECIFIED IN THE REVISED INDIAN TRADE CLASSIFICATION. Code No.
Мы должны немедленно вырубить электроснабжение. Немедленно.
Но Цифровая крепость никогда не устареет: благодаря функции меняющегося открытого текста она выдержит людскую атаку и не выдаст ключа.
Новый стандарт шифрования.
Новые обязанности Сьюзан были засекречены, в том числе и для многих людей в высших эшелонах власти. - Шифры, - задумчиво сказал Беккер - Откуда ты знаешь, с чего начинать.
Отчаянный парень, - пробормотал Хейл себе под нос. Он знал, что задумал Чатрукьян. Отключение ТРАНСТЕКСТА было логичным шагом в случае возникновения чрезвычайной ситуации, а ведь тот был уверен, что в машину проник вирус.