Engineering for Storage of Fruits and Vegetables is a comprehensive reference that provides an understanding of the basic principles of cold storage load estimation, refrigeration capacity calculations for various types of cold storages, and other topics of evaporative cooling, thus demonstrating the important principles for designing low cost precooling chambers. The book is written in an accessible manner to provide a solid understanding of different environments and their considerations to give readers the confidence they need to design suitable packaging materials by understanding parameters, including reaction rates, deteriorative reactions, Arrhenius equations, Q10, K, D, Z parameters, and their influence on reaction rates. Account Options Accedi. Biblioteca personale Guida Ricerca Libri avanzata.
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What should your employees know before moving, handling, and storing materials? What are the potential hazards for workers? What precautions should workers take when moving materials manually?
What precautions should workers take when moving materials mechanically? What precautions must workers take to avoid storage hazards? What safeguards must workers follow when stacking materials? What safety measures should employers take regarding conveyors? What safety measures should employers take regarding cranes? What must employers do to ensure the safe use of slings? What must employers do to protect workers who operate powered industrial trucks?
What are the safety requirements for design? What are the safety requirements for modification? What safety precautions should employers and workers observe when operating or maintaining powered industrial trucks? Are there any training requirements for operators of powered industrial trucks? Should the prevention of some injuries receive special emphasis? How can employers make their training programs more effective?
What are safety and health system management guidelines? What are state programs? How do I obtain consultation services? What is the Strategic Partnership Program?
Does OSHA offer training and education? Does OSHA provide any information electronically? Handling and storing materials involve diverse operations such as hoisting tons of steel with a crane; driving a truck loaded with concrete blocks; carrying bags or materials manually; and stacking palletized bricks or other materials such as drums, barrels, kegs, and lumber. The efficient handling and storing of materials are vital to industry.
In addition to raw materials, these operations provide a continuous flow of parts and assemblies through the workplace and ensure that materials are available when needed. Unfortunately, the improper handling and storing of materials often result in costly injuries. In addition to training and education, applying general safety principles—such as proper work practices, equipment, and controls—can help reduce workplace accidents involving the moving, handling, and storing of materials.
Whether moving materials manually or mechanically, your employees should know and understand the potential hazards associated with the task at hand and how to control their workplaces to minimize the danger. Because numerous injuries can result from improperly handling and storing materials, workers should also be aware of accidents that may result from the unsafe or improper handling of equipment as well as from improper work practices.
In addition, workers should be able to recognize the methods for eliminating—or at least minimizing—the occurrence of such accidents. Employers and employees should examine their workplaces to detect any unsafe or unhealthful conditions, practices, or equipment and take corrective action.
Workers frequently cite the weight and bulkiness of objects that they lift as major contributing factors to their injuries. In , for example, more than , workplace accidents resulted in back injuries. Bending, followed by twisting and turning, were the more commonly cited movements that caused back injuries. When moving materials manually, workers should attach handles or holders to loads. In addition, workers should always wear appropriate personal protective equipment and use proper lifting techniques.
To prevent injury from oversize loads, workers should seek help in the following:. Using the following personal protective equipment prevents needless injuries when manually moving materials:.
Using mechanical equipment to move and store materials increases the potential for employee injuries. Workers must be aware of both manual handling safety concerns and safe equipment operating techniques. Employees should avoid overloading equipment when moving materials mechanically by letting the weight, size, and shape of the material being moved dictate the type of equipment used.
All materials-handling equipment has rated capacities that determine the maximum weight the equipment can safely handle and the conditions under which it can handle that weight. Employers must ensure that the equipment-rated capacity is displayed on each piece of equipment and is not exceeded except for load testing. Although workers may be knowledgeable about powered equipment, they should take precautions when stacking and storing material. When picking up items with a powered industrial truck, workers must do the following:.
Stored materials must not create a hazard for employees. Employers should make workers aware of such factors as the materials' height and weight, how accessible the stored materials are to the user, and the condition of the containers where the materials are being stored when stacking and piling materials.
To prevent creating hazards when storing materials, employers must do the following:. In addition, workers should consider placing bound material on racks, and secure it by stacking, blocking, or interlocking to prevent it from sliding, falling, or collapsing. Stacking materials can be dangerous if workers do not follow safety guidelines. Falling materials and collapsing loads can crush or pin workers, causing injuries or death. To help prevent injuries when stacking materials, workers must do the following:.
To reduce the number of accidents associated with workplace equipment, employers must train employees in the proper use and limitations of the equipment they operate. In addition to powered industrial trucks, this includes knowing how to safely and effectively use equipment such as conveyors, cranes, and slings. When using conveyors, workers may get their hands caught in nip points where the conveyor medium runs near the frame or over support members or rollers.
Workers also may be struck by material falling off the conveyor, or they may get caught in the conveyor and drawn into the conveyor path as a result. To prevent or reduce the severity of an injury, employers must take the following precautions to protect workers:. Employers must permit only thoroughly trained and competent workers to operate cranes.
Operators should know what they are lifting and what it weighs. For example, the rated capacity of mobile cranes varies with the length of the boom and the boom radius. When a crane has a telescoping boom, a load may be safe to lift at a short boom length or a short boom radius, but may overload the crane when the boom is extended and the radius increases.
As an employer, you must designate a competent person to conduct inspections of slings before and during use, especially when service conditions warrant. In addition, you must ensure that workers observe the following precautions when working with slings:.
Workers who handle and store materials often use fork trucks, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electrical motors or internal combustion engines. Employers must make these workers aware of the safety requirements pertaining the design, maintenance, and use of these trucks. All new powered industrial trucks, except vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or over-the-road hauling, must meet the design and construction requirements for powered industrial trucks established in the American National Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, Part II, ANSI B Trucks approved for fire safety also must bear a label, or some other identifying mark, indicating acceptance by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
You and your employees must not make modifications and additions affecting capacity and safe operation of the trucks without the manufacturer's prior written approval. In these cases, you must change capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates and tags or decals to reflect the new information.
If the truck is equipped with front-end attachments that are not factory installed, the user must request that the truck be marked to identify these attachments and show the truck's approximate weight— including the installed attachment—when it is at maximum elevation with its load laterally centered. There are 11 different designations of industrial trucks, and each designation is suitable for use in certain locations and under specific conditions. Workers must not use powered industrial trucks in atmospheres containing hazardous concentrations of the following substances:.
In addition, workers may not use these trucks in atmospheres containing hazardous concentrations of metal dust, including aluminum, magnesium, and other metals of similarly hazardous characteristics. In atmospheres containing carbon black, coal, or coke dust, workers may use only approved powered industrial trucks designated as EX.
Where dusts of magnesium, aluminum, or bronze may be present, fuses, switches, motor controllers, and circuit breakers of trucks must have enclosures specifically approved for such locations.
Some powered industrial trucks are designed, constructed, and assembled for use in atmospheres containing flammable vapors or dusts. These include powered industrial trucks equipped with the following:. Workers may use these specially designed powered industrial trucks in locations where volatile flammable liquids or flammable gases are handled, processed, or used.
The liquids, vapors, or gases should be confined within closed containers or closed systems and not allowed to escape. When operating or maintaining powered industrial trucks, you and your employees must consider the following safety precautions:. Effective March 1, , employers must develop a training program specific to the type of truck to be driven and the working conditions encountered. Employers must also evaluate the operator's performance in the workplace and certify that each operator has successfully received the training needed.
The certification must include the name of the operator, the date of training, the date of evaluation, and the identity of the person s performing the training or evaluation. In addition, you must conduct an evaluation of each powered industrial truck operator's performance at least once every 3 years. For more detailed information on powered industrial trucks, overhead and gantry cranes, and slings, see 29 CFR Part Employers can reduce injuries resulting from handling and storing materials by using some basic safety procedures such as adopting sound ergonomics practices, taking general fire safety precautions, and keeping aisles and passageways clear.
Ergonomics is defined as the study of work and is based on the principle that the job should be adapted to fit the person rather than forcing the person to fit the job. Ergonomics focuses on the work environment, such as its design and function, as well as items—such as the design and function of work stations, controls, displays, safety devices, tools, and lighting to fit the employees' physical requirements and to ensure their health and well being.
Ergonomics includes restructuring or changing workplace conditions, to make the job easier, and reducing stressors that cause musculoskeletal disorders. In the area of materials handling and storing, ergonomic principles may require controls such as reducing the size or weight of the objects lifted, installing a mechanical lifting aid, or changing the height of a pallet or shelf.
Although no approach completely eliminates back injuries resulting from lifting materials, you can prevent a substantial number of lifting injuries by implementing an effective ergonomics program and by training your employees in appropriate lifting techniques.
In adhering to fire safety precautions, instruct employees that flammable and combustible materials must be stored according to their fire characteristics. Flammable liquids, for example, must be separated from other material by a fire wall. Also, other combustibles must be stored in an area where smoking and using an open flame or a spark-producing device is prohibited. Dissimilar materials that are dangerous when they come into contact with each other must be stored apart.
When using aisles and passageways to move materials mechanically, workers must allow sufficient clearance for aisles at loading docks, through doorways, wherever turns must be made, and in other parts of the workplace.
Providing sufficient clearance for mechanically-moved materials will prevent workers from being pinned between the equipment and fixtures in the workplace, such as walls, racks, posts, or other machines. Sufficient clearance also will prevent the load from striking an obstruction and falling on an employee.
Employers must ensure that all passageways that workers use remain clear of obstructions and tripping hazards.
Just like most row crops, growing onions can be a difficult challenge. There are so many variables to focus on in order to have a successful crop. Growers want to be able to store their crop to stay fresh, for as long possible. By doing this, they are able to maximize their profits and set themselves up for years of growth.
Materials storage and waste management
Account Options Login. United States. Committee on Appropriations. Halaman terpilih Halaman Halaman Istilah dan frasa umum Accounting additional Administration allowed amount annual appropriation Architect Assistant authorized basis bill Brenkworth calls Capitol catalog Chairman Chamber Cheatham collections College Library completed concerning Congress construction continue contract correct cost cover Department Division elevator employees equipment estimate expenses figure fiscal floor follows funds give Government Printing Office Grounds handle Harrison hearings House increase industry interest Joint Committee Legislative letter Library of Congress materials Members million Mumford necessary Office Building operation parking percent plant Police positions possible prepared present Printer production proposed Public Library question received record referred replacement Representative requested restoration salary Senator Monroney Senator Proxmire side space staff statement Stewart Subcommittee telephone tion United University Washington.
A warehouse is a building for storing goods. They are usually large plain buildings in industrial parks on the outskirts of cities, towns or villages. They usually have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways , airports , or seaports. They often have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are usually placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: What is Prefabricated Construction? - ModSpace
This website uses non-intrusive cookies to improve your user experience. You can visit our cookie privacy page for more information. Beta This is a new way of showing guidance - your feedback will help us improve it. In addition, all contractors must plan, manage and monitor their work so it is carried safely and without risks to health. This includes careful planning on how the site will be kept tidy and housekeeping actively managed. The standard of housekeeping you achieve on site will be affected by how effective you are at:. Each year around trips or slips on construction sites involve someone fracturing bones or dislocating joints. These incidents can cause permanent disablement and have a huge impact on both work and personal life. Safe and efficient materials storage depends on good co-operation and co-ordination between everyone involved including, client, contractors, suppliers and the construction trades.
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Farm building , any of the structures used in farming operations, which may include buildings to house families and workers, as well as livestock, machinery, and crops. The basic unit of commercial agricultural operation, throughout history and worldwide, is the farm. Because farming systems differ widely, there are important variations in the nature and arrangements of farm facilities. This article deals with farmhouses and service buildings that can be classified as follows: livestock barns and shelters; machinery- and supply-storage buildings; buildings and facilities for crop storage, including fodder; and special-purpose structures.
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What should your employees know before moving, handling, and storing materials? What are the potential hazards for workers? What precautions should workers take when moving materials manually? What precautions should workers take when moving materials mechanically? What precautions must workers take to avoid storage hazards?
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There are therefore various considerations to take into account prior to site acquisition: A. Budget allocated: Is it sufficient for outright purchase or for rent? How are these costs to be viewed, eg as an investment, recoverable on overheads, etc.
Structural engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering in which structural engineers are trained to design the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man made structures. Structural engineers need to understand and calculate the stability, strength and rigidity of built structures for buildings  and nonbuilding structures. The structural designs are integrated with those of other designers such as architects and building services engineer and often supervise the construction of projects by contractors on site.
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