All relevant data is provided in the manuscript. The codes used in this paper are freely available on Github. Salt fortified with the drug, diethylcarbamazine DEC , and introduced into a competitive market has the potential to overcome the obstacles associated with tablet-based Lymphatic Filariasis LF elimination programs. Questions remain, however, regarding the economic viability, production capacity, and effectiveness of this strategy as a sustainable means to bring about LF elimination in resource poor settings. Due to increasing revenues obtained from the sale of DEC salt over time, expansion of its delivery in the population, and greater cumulative impact on the survival of worms leading to shorter timelines to extinction, this strategy could also represent a significantly more cost-effective option than annual DEC tablet-based MDA for accomplishing LF elimination.
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- Galp’s 9th Brazilian pre-salt unit starts production
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Pond production 4. Description of the different Artemia habitats 4. Site selection 4. Pond adaptation 4. Pond preparation 4. Artemia inoculation 4. Monitoring and managing the culture system 4. Harvesting and processing techniques 4. Literature of interest 4. Natural lakes 4. Permanent solar salt operations 4. Seasonal units As was explained earlier Artemia populations are widely distributed over the five continents in a variety of biotopes.
Culture methods largely depend on pond size and available infrastructure. In this text we make a distinction between the following Artemia production systems.
Natural lakes High saline lakes in which natural Artemia populations are present. In these inland lakes population densities are usually low and mainly fluctuate in function of food availability, temperature and salinity. Permanent solar salt operations Mechanized operations consisting of several interconnected evaporation ponds and crystallizers. In these salt operations, ponds can have sizes of a few to several hundred hectares each with depths of 0.
For a schematic outline of a typical permanent salt work see Fig. Sea water is pumped into the first pond and flows by gravity through the consecutive evaporation ponds. While passing through the pond system salinity levels gradually build up as a result of evaporation.
As the salinity increases, salts with low solubility precipitate as carbonates and sulfates Fig. Once the sea water has evaporated to about one tenth of its original volume about g. Figure 4. Schematic outline of a typical salt work. Before all sodium chloride has crystallized, the mother liquor, now called bittern, has to be drained off.
The technique of salt production thus involves fractional crystallization of the salts in different ponds. To assure that the different salts precipitate in the correct pond, salinity in each pond is strictly controlled and during most of the year kept at a constant level. Brine shrimp are mainly found in ponds at intermediate salinity levels. As Artemia have no defense mechanisms against predators, the lowest salinity at which animals are found is also the upper salinity tolerance level of possible predators minimum 80 g.
From g. Although live animals can be found at higher salinity, the need of increased osmoregulatory activity, requiring higher energy inputs, negatively influences growth and reproduction, eventually leading to starvation and death.
Cysts are produced in ponds having intermediate and high salinity 80 g. Precipitation of salts with increased salinity The population density depends on food availability, temperature and salinity. The availability of pumping facilities and intake canals allows manipulation of nutrient intake and salinity. Sometimes fertilization can further increase yields. Still, numbers of animals and thus yields per hectare are low. Moreover the stable conditions prevailing in the ponds of these salt works constant salinity, limited fluctuations in oxygen as algal concentrations are fairly low, etc.
The selective advantage of ovoviviparous females in these salt works, could also explain the decrease of cyst production which is very typical for stable biotopes e. In salt works Artemia should not only be considered as a valuable byproduct. The presence of brine shrimp also influences salt quality as well as quantity. In salt works algal blooms are common, not the least because of the increase of nutrient concentration with evaporation.
The presence of algae in low salinity ponds is beneficial, as they color the water and thus assure increased solar heat absorption, eventually resulting in faster evaporation. At elevated salinity, if present in large numbers, algae and more specifically their dissolved organic excretion and decomposition products will prevent early precipitation of gypsum, because of increased viscosity of the water. In this case gypsum, which precipitates too late in the crystallizers together with the sodium chloride, will contaminate the salt, thus reducing its quality.
Furthermore, accumulations of dying algae which turn black when oxidized, may also contaminate the salt and be the reason for the production of small salt crystals. In extreme situations the water viscosity might even become so high that salt precipitation is completely inhibited. The presence of Artemia is not only essential for the control of the algal blooms. High concentrations of halophilic bacteria - causing the water to turn wine red - enhance heat absorption, thereby accelerating evaporation, but at the same time reduce concentrations of dissolved organic matter.
This in turn leads to lower viscosity levels, promoting the formation of larger salt crystals, thus improving salt quality. Therefore, introducing and managing brine shrimp populations in salt works, where natural populations are not present, will improve profitability, even in situations where Artemia biomass and cyst yields are comparatively low.
In most of the salt works natural Artemia populations are present. However, in some Artemia had to be introduced to improve the salt production. Seasonal units We are referring here to small artisanal salt works in the tropical-subtropical belt that are only operational during the dry season. In artisanal salt works ponds are only a few hundred square meters in size and have depths of 0.
In Fig. Although salt production in these salt streets is based on the same chemical and biological principles as in the large salt farms, production methods differ slightly Vu Do Quynh and Nguyen Ngoc Lam, At the beginning of the production season all ponds are filled with sea water. Lay-out of a typical artisanal salt farm. Water evaporates and, usually just before the next spring tide, all the water, now having a higher salinity than sea water, is concentrated in one pond.
All other ponds are re-filled with sea water, which once again is evaporated and concentrated in a second pond. This process is repeated until a series of ponds is obtained in which salinity increases progressively, but not necessarily gradually! For the remainder of the season water is kept in each pond until the salinity reaches a predetermined level and is then allowed to flow into the next pond holding water of a higher salinity.
Note that the salinity in the different ponds is not kept constant as in permanently operated salt works. Sometimes, to further increase evaporation, ponds are not refilled immediately but left dry for one or two days. During that time the bottom heats up, which further enhances evaporation.
Once the salinity reaches g. Artemia thrive in ponds where salinity is high enough to exclude predators between 70 g.
As seasonal systems often are small they are fairly easy to manipulate. Hence higher food levels and thus higher animal densities can be maintained. Also, factors such as temperature shallow ponds , oxygen level high algal density, use of organic manure and salinity discontinuous pumping fluctuate creating an unstable environment. This, together with the fact that population cycles are yearly interrupted seems to favor oviparous reproduction.
Integrated systems in which Artemia culture high salinity is combined with the culture of shrimp or fish stocked in the ponds with lower salinity also exist.
As for the small salt works, brine shrimp culture usually depends on the availability of high saline water and is often limited to certain periods of the year. Management of these ponds is similar to the management of the Artemia ponds in artisanal salt farms. Intensive Artemia culture in ponds can also be set up separately from salt production. As salinity in these systems are often too low to exclude predators 45 to 60 g.
Agricultural waste products e. Systems can be continuous at regular intervals small amounts of nauplii are added to the culture ponds or discontinuous cultures are stopped every two weeks. Climatology 4. Topography 4. Ponds can be constructed close to evaporation ponds with the required salinity, or low salinity ponds already existing in the salt operation can be modified.
In what follows we will not give a detailed account of all aspects related to pond construction and site selection. We will only summarize those aspects which should be specifically applied for Artemia pond culture. For more detailed information we refer the reader to specialized handbooks for pond construction. Therefore, Artemia culture is mostly found in areas where evaporation rates are higher than precipitation rates during extended periods of the year e. Evaporation rates depend on temperature, wind velocity and relative humidity.
On the other hand, the presence of solar salt farms in the neighbourhood is a clear indication that Artemia pond culture is possible during at least part of the year. As temperature also influences population dynamics directly, this climatological factor should receive special attention. Too low temperatures will result in slow growth and reproduction whereas high temperatures can be lethal. Note that optimal culture temperatures are strain dependent see further.
Topography The land on which ponds will be constructed should be as flat as possible to allow easy construction of ponds with regular shapes.
A gradual slope can eventually facilitate gravity flow in the pond complex. The choice between dugout entirely excavated and level ponds bottom at practically the same depth as the surrounding land and water retained by dikes or levees will depend on the type of ponds already in use.
Locating the Artemia ponds lower than all other ponds is good practice, as the water flow into the ponds is much higher than the outflow usually ponds are only drained at the end of the culture season. Making use of gravity or tidal currents to fill the ponds, even if only partially, will reduce pumping costs. Heavy clay soils with minimal contents of sand are the ideal substrate. An additional problem might be the presence of acid sulfate soils, often found in mangrove or swamp areas.
Sometimes yellowish or rust-colored particles can be observed in the surface layers of acid sulfate soils.
Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend. It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others.
Emergency water production
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The new unit, known as P, operates in the Lula North area, in the pre-salt of the Santos basin and has a daily processing capacity of up to thousand barrels of oil and 6 million cubic meters of natural gas. The FPSO will expectedly connect to nine producer wells and six injector wells. The nine units brought online since the beginning of the current decade yield a combined daily processing capacity of up to 1. Galp is a publicly held, Portuguese-based energy company, with an international presence. Our activities cover all stages of the energy sector's value chain, from prospection and extraction of oil and natural gas from reservoirs located kilometers under the sea surface, to the development of efficient and environmentally sustainable energy solutions for our customers — whether large industries that seek to increase their competitiveness, or individual consumers that seek the most flexible solutions for their home and mobility needs. We also contribute to the economic development of the 11 countries where we operate and to the social progress of the communities that welcome us. Galp employs 6, people.
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Pond production 4. Description of the different Artemia habitats 4. Site selection 4. Pond adaptation 4. Pond preparation 4. Artemia inoculation 4. Monitoring and managing the culture system 4. Harvesting and processing techniques 4. Literature of interest 4. Natural lakes 4.
Salt Brine Production System Model SB600
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Salt Production and Processing
India is one of the major producer of salt accounting for 7. The salt industry provides employment to more than 1. The Indian salt industry uses labour intensive technology in contrast high level of mechanization in salt industry of nations like Australia, Canada, France, USA etc. Majority of workers employed in the salt industry are unskilled and poorly educated and employed through contractor on temporary basis. A major share of accidents are due to bad work practice and human error and hence can be avoided. Studies in other countries have established that workers of last industry suffer from eye and skin problems. The focus of studies should be on the following aspects, illustrating the status and current practices in the industry and the practices being followed abroad. The recommendations for promoting safety practices be drawn up along with suggested implementation mechanism. Safety hazards injury, fatal accidents ii. Health hazards illness, chronic diseases iii.
Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process
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Industry of Pakistan
Salt, i. It is an ionic chemical compound with the formula NaCl. This means that for every gram of salt, almost 40 per cent Salt can vary in colour depending upon its level of purity.
Galp’s 9th Brazilian pre-salt unit starts production
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