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Units product oilfield equipment, drilling exploration and spare parts

Units product oilfield equipment, drilling exploration and spare parts

Crude oils and natural gases are mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules organic compounds of carbon and hydrogen atoms containing from 1 to 60 carbon atoms. The properties of these hydrocarbons depend on the number and arrangement of the carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules. The basic hydrocarbon molecule is 1 carbon atom linked with 4 hydrogen atoms methane. All other variations of petroleum hydrocarbons evolve from this molecule.

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Crude oils and natural gases are mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules organic compounds of carbon and hydrogen atoms containing from 1 to 60 carbon atoms. The properties of these hydrocarbons depend on the number and arrangement of the carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules. The basic hydrocarbon molecule is 1 carbon atom linked with 4 hydrogen atoms methane. All other variations of petroleum hydrocarbons evolve from this molecule.

Hydrocarbons containing up to 4 carbon atoms are usually gases; those with 5 to 19 carbon atoms are usually liquids; and those with 20 or more are solids. In addition to hydrocarbons, crude oils and natural gases contain sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen compounds together with trace quantities of metals and other elements. Crude oil and natural gas are believed to have been formed over millions of years by the decay of vegetation and marine organisms, compressed under the weight of sedimentation.

Because oil and gas are lighter than water, they rose up to fill the voids in these overlying formations. This upward movement stopped when the oil and gas reached dense, overlying, impervious strata or nonporous rock. The oil and gas filled the spaces in porous rock seams and natural underground reservoirs, such as saturated sands, with the lighter gas on top of the heavier oil.

Shale oil, or kerogen, is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons and other organic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. It is extracted, by heating, from a rock called oil shale, yielding from 15 to 50 gallons of oil per ton of rock. Exploration and production is the common terminology applied to that portion of the petroleum industry which is responsible for exploring for and discovering new crude oil and gas fields, drilling wells and bringing the products to the surface.

Historically, crude oil, which had naturally seeped to the surface, was collected for use as medicine, protective coatings and fuel for lamps. Natural gas seepage was recorded as fires burning on the surface of the earth. It was not until that methods of drilling and obtaining large commercial quantities of crude oil were developed. Crude oil and natural gas are found throughout the world, beneath both land and water, as follows:.

Figure 1 and figure 2 show world crude oil and natural gas production for The names of crude oils often identify both the type of crude and areas where they were originally discovered.

For example, the first commercial crude oil, Pennsylvania Crude, is named after its place of origin in the United States. Other examples are Saudi Light and Venezuelan Heavy.

Crude oils are complex mixtures containing many different, individual hydrocarbon compounds; they differ in appearance and composition from one oil field to another, and sometimes are even different from wells relatively near one another. Crude oils range in consistency from watery to tar-like solids, and in colour from clear to black. See table 1 and table 2. Table 1. Typical approximate characteristics and properties and gasoline potential of various typical crude oils.

The lighter, straight chain paraffin molecules are found in gases and paraffin waxes. The branched chain paraffins are usually found in heavier fractions of crude oil and have higher octane numbers than normal paraffins. Aromatics: Aromatics are unsaturated ring type hydrocarbon cyclic compounds.

Naphthalenes are fused double ring aromatic compounds. The most complex aromatics, polynuclears three or more fused aromatic rings , are found in heavier fractions of crude oil. Naphthenes: Naphthenes are saturated ring type hydrocarbon groupings, with the formula C n H 2n , arranged in the form of closed rings cyclic , found in all fractions of crude oil except the very lightest.

Single ring naphthenes mono-cycloparaffins with 5 and 6 carbon atoms predominate, with two ring naphthenes dicycloparaffins found in the heavier ends of naphtha. Sulphur and sulphur compounds: Sulphur is present in natural gas and crude oil as hydrogen sulphide H 2 S , as compounds thiols, mercaptans, sulphides, polysulphides, etc.

Each gas and crude oil has different amounts and types of sulphur compounds, but as a rule the proportion, stability and complexity of the compounds are greater in heavier crude oil fractions. Sulphur compounds called mercaptans, which exhibit distinct odours detectable at very low concentrations, are found in gas, petroleum crude oils and distillates.

The most common are methyl and ethyl mercaptans. The potential for exposure to toxic levels of H 2 S exists when working in drilling, production, transportation and processing crude oil and natural gas.

The combustion of petroleum hydrocarbons containing sulphur produces undesirables such as sulphuric acid and sulphur dioxide.

Oxygen compounds: Oxygen compounds, such as phenols, ketones and carboxylic acids, are found in crude oils in varying amounts. Nitrogen compounds: Nitrogen is found in lighter fractions of crude oil as basic compounds, and more often in heavier fractions of crude oil as non-basic compounds which may also include trace metals. Trace metals: Trace amounts, or small quantities of metals, including copper, nickel, iron, arsenic and vanadium, are often found in crude oils in small quantities.

Inorganic salts: Crude oils often contain inorganic salts, such as sodium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride, suspended in the crude or dissolved in entrained water brine. Carbon dioxide: Carbon dioxide may result from the decomposition of bicarbonates present in, or added to crude, or from steam used in the distillation process. Normally occurring radioactive materials: Normally occurring radioactive materials NORMs are often present in crude oil, in the drilling deposits and in the drilling mud, and can present a hazard from low levels of radioactivity.

Relatively simple crude-oil assays are used to classify crude oils as paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic or mixed, based on the predominant proportion of similar hydrocarbon molecules. Mixed-base crudes have varying amounts of each type of hydrocarbon. More comprehensive crude assays are conducted to determine the value of the crude i. Crude oils are usually grouped according to yield structure, with high-octane gasoline being one of the more desirable products.

Refinery crude oil feedstocks usually consist of mixtures of two or more different crude oils. Crude oils are also defined in terms of API specific gravity. For example, heavier crude oils have low API gravities and high specific gravities.

A low-API gravity crude oil may have either a high or low flashpoint, depending on its lightest ends more volatile constituents.

Because of the importance of temperature and pressure in the refining process, crude oils are further classified as to viscosity, pour points and boiling ranges. Other physical and chemical characteristics, such as colour and carbon residue content, are also considered.

Crude oils with high carbon, low hydrogen and low API gravity are usually rich in aromatics; while those with low carbon, high hydrogen and high API gravity are usually rich in paraffins. The composition of naturally occurring hydrocarbon gases is similar to crude oils in that they contain a mixture of different hydrocarbon molecules depending on their source. They can be extracted as natural gas almost free of liquids from gas fields; petroleum-associated gas which is extracted with oil from gas and oil fields; and gas from gas condensate fields, where some of the liquid components of oil convert into the gaseous state when pressure is high 10 to 70 mPa.

When the pressure is decreased to 4 to 8 mPa condensate containing heavier hydrocarbons separates from the gas by condensation. Gas is extracted from wells reaching up to 4 miles 6. See figure 3. Figure 3. Offshore natural gas well set in Natural gas also contains traces of nitrogen, water vapour, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and occasional inert gases such as argon or helium.

Depending how it is used as a fuel, natural gas is either compressed or liquefied. Natural gas from gas and gas condensate fields is processed in the field to meet specific transportation criteria before being compressed and fed into gas pipelines. This preparation includes removal of water with driers dehydrators, separators and heaters , oil removal using coalescing filters, and the removal of solids by filtration.

Hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide are also removed from natural gas, so that they do not corrode pipelines and transportation and compression equipment. Propane, butane and pentane, present in natural gas, are also removed before transmission so they will not condense and form liquids in the system. The composition of LNG is different from natural gas due to the removal of some impurities and components during the liquefaction process. LNG is primarily used to augment natural gas supplies during peak demand periods and to supply gas in remote areas away from major pipelines.

It is regasified by adding nitrogen and air to make it comparable to natural gas before being fed into gas supply lines. LNG is also used as a motor-vehicle fuel as an alternative to gasoline. Petroleum-associated and condensate gases are separated and liquefied to produce liquefied petroleum gas LPG by compression, adsorption, absorption and cooling at oil and gas process plants.

These gas plants also produce natural gasoline and other hydrocarbon fractions. Unlike natural gas, petroleum-associated gas and condensate gas, oil processing gases produced as by-products of refinery processing contain considerable amounts of hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons ethylene, propylene and so on. The composition of oil processing gases depends upon each specific process and the crude oils used. For example, gases obtained as a result of thermal cracking usually contain significant amounts of olefins, while those obtained from catalytic cracking contain more isobutanes.

Pyrolysis gases contain ethylene and hydrogen. The composition of natural gases and typical oil processing gases is shown in table 3. Table 3. Typical approximate composition of natural and oil processing gases per cent by volume. Combustible natural gas, with a calorific value of The natural gas hydrocarbon also is used as feedstock for petrochemical and chemical processes.

Oil processing liquefied petroleum gases LPG have higher calorific values of The unsaturated hydrocarbons ethylene, propylene and so on derived from oil processing gases may be converted into high-octane gasoline or used as raw materials in the petrochemical and chemical-processing industries.

According to the US National Fire Protection Association, flammable combustible gases are those which burn in the concentrations of oxygen normally present in air. The burning of flammable gases is similar to that of flammable hydrocarbon liquid vapours, as a specific ignition temperature is needed to initiate the burning reaction and each will burn only within a certain defined range of gas-air mixtures. Flammable liquids have a flashpoint the temperature always below the boiling point at which they emit sufficient vapours for combustion.

There is no apparent flashpoint for flammable gases, as they are normally at temperatures above their boiling points, even when liquefied, and are therefore always at temperatures well in excess of their flashpoints.

The major factor which determines the pressure inside the vessel is the temperature of the liquid stored. When exposed to the atmosphere, the liquefied gas very rapidly vaporizes, travelling along the ground or water surface unless dispersed into the air by wind or mechanical air movement.

At normal atmospheric temperatures, about one-third of the liquid in the container will vaporize. Flammable gases are further classified as fuel gas and industrial gas. Fuel gases, including natural gas and liquefied petroleum gases propane and butane , are burned with air to produce heat in ovens, furnaces, water heaters and boilers.

Flammable industrial gases, such as acetylene, are used in processing, welding, cutting and heat treating operations. The search for oil and gas requires a knowledge of geography, geology and geophysics.

Crude oil is usually found in certain types of geological structures, such as anticlines, fault traps and salt domes, which lie under various terrains and in a wide range of climates. After selecting an area of interest, many different types of geophysical surveys are conducted and measurements performed in order to obtain a precise evaluation of the subsurface formations, including:.

Our founder, James MacLean III, was a wireline engineer and experienced firsthand the pain of not knowing where important field equipment was located. The oil and gas industry uses many acronyms and abbreviations.

Oil Field Tools. Can your oil and gas software give you the information you need to accurately analyze opportunities? Explore our wide range of tubular running equipment and pipe handling tools today! Texas International Oilfield Tools stocks its own inventory of new, used, reconditioned and certified tools and. Oil Field Trash is full of oil field tools, right at your finger tips. King Oil Tools is a world leader in design and manufacture of swivels and other handling tools for the drilling industry.

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At TX Energy DC, our Customer Training teams are committed to helping your workforce grow by sharing a common vision to face this industry's challenges, focused on operational excellence. We keep your operations up and running. TX Energy DC has all the tools, technologies and thinking needed to service, repair and maintain your rotating equipment. Our expert field engineers service your gas turbines, compressors and valves to TX Energy's rigorous quality standards. We deliver outstanding service to our customers around the world, throughout the entire lifecycle of your equipment.

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Cooperation within the Hub of customers of services and products — investors, production companies and the governments — with service and products suppliers allows TUTKOVSKY to build effective network communications between them, which contributes to better customer satisfaction. At the same time, an optimal balance of supply and demand is established. We have provided our services, manufactured and supplied materials and equipment to 38 global companies in 25 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America. These products, in particular, are delivered on the order of leading world companies, such as Schlumberger, Baker Hughes, Halliburton and Sondex GE energy.

This application is a continuation of U.

Oilfield Supplies. Total Oilfield Rentals is engaged in the rental and transportation of drilling, completion, water management and production equipment to the oil and natural gas industry throughout western Canada and the northwestern United States. Oilfield Supply Alliance OSA specializes in the supply of oilfield equipment and service solutions to the international oil and gas industry. Stocking and delivering everything you need in the oilfield. We provide a very diverse set of products and services in the industry that will add value to our customers, with an emphasis on safe, integrity and quality operations. Oilfield Equipment Bearings www. Oilfield Equipment. We can ship motor. MRC Global stocks and provides a full range of oilfield products to operators and production crews for well completion to the gathering system.

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Maximize directional steering, motor stall detection, and well placement with enhanced drilling measurements. Improve slickwater fracturing in unconventional wells with high efficiency and improved logistics and HSE footprint. Rick Faircloth, Senior Technical Consultant, reflects on his year career and offers advice for the next generation of industry professionals.

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Mar 13, - Exploration and production is the common terminology applied to that oil and gas fields, drilling wells and bringing the products to the surface. maintenance and repair, and the transport of the oil and gas to shore by ship or pipeline. Drilling platforms support drilling rigs, supplies and equipment for.

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For the protection of refining equipments and overhead column and for refinery processing equipments. Coagulants and in-line flocculants for raw inlet or oil water classification slop oil recovery etc. We supply esters produced on the basis of renewable natural resources and other additives for the formulation of drilling fluids, as well as production chemicals for oil and gas exploration. We provide a full range of mud systems to match the drilling programs and environmental requirements of deepwater wells. Global Trust. Demulsifiers Desalting crude oil demulsifiers based on resins in non-inflammable media. Corrosion Inhibitors For the protection of refining equipments and overhead column and for refinery processing equipments. Slop Oil Demulsifiers To break, even toughest solid-laden aged slop or residual oil emulsions.

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However, it is more difficult for ROVs to generate the same flow and pressure. We have oil drilling tools like drill pile, workover tool and manifold for oil wells. Over the years we have grown into an industry leader in pressure control solutions and can be counted on to deliver the highest standards and to. Obviously, there is no way to replicate the highly complicated process of pinching and cutting off high-strength steel pipe under full-scale field conditions: The extreme pressure and flow make it impractical, if not far too dangerous. Most of the hoses produced by Eaton for subsea production applications are fully API 17E tested and compliant. You can read the Summary of the Legislation affecting licensees and registrants. We provide US top brand oilfield equipment to the end users and service companies all over the world. The NL Shaffer and Koomey systems will be discussed in detail to illustrate the general concept since these are probably the most common types. The Ashton Garage Door range allows you to turn ideas into reality. We supply many different types of BOP Stack spares for several different manufacturers.

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