Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Expansion of biobased industrial production in the United States will require an overall scale-up of manufacturing capabilities, di versification of processing technologies, and reduction of costs. The development of efficient ''biorefineries" that integrate production of numerous biobased products would help reduce costs and allow biobased products to compete more effectively with petroleum-based products. The development of new or improved low-cost processing technologies will largely determine which biobased products become available.
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Jensen, J. Graham and Donald L. Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing.
This article provides an overview of the complex of food industries. Other articles in this chapter and Encyclopaedia deal with particular food industry sectors and particular hazards.
Many food industries depend almost entirely on local agriculture or fishing. In the past, this meant seasonal production and hiring of seasonal workers.
Improvements in food processing and preservation technologies have taken some of the pressure off workers to process food quickly to prevent spoilage. This has resulted in a decrease in seasonal employment fluctuations. However, certain industries still have seasonal activities, such as fresh fruit and vegetable processing and increases in production of baked goods, chocolate and so forth for holiday seasons.
Seasonal workers are often women and foreign workers. Much of this increase can be attributed to an increased demand for processed food and drink, especially in developing countries where the market has not yet been saturated. This increase in output of food and drink products, however, has not resulted in increased employment because of intensified competition, which has resulted in decreased employment in many food industries, especially in industrialized countries. This is due to increased productivity and mechanization in many of these industries.
Demographic pressure, uneven distribution of agricultural resources and the need to insure preservation of food products to facilitate their better distribution explain the rapid technical evolution in the food industries. Constant economic and marketing pressures drive the industry to provide new and different products for market, while other operations may make the same product in the same way for decades. Even highly industrialized facilities often resort to seemingly archaic techniques when starting new products or processes.
In practice, to satisfy population requirements, there is a need not only for a sufficient quantity of foodstuffs, which presupposes an increase of production, but also strict control of sanitation to obtain the quality essential to maintain the health of the community.
Only modernization of techniques justified by production volumes in a stable production environment will eliminate manual handling hazards. In spite of the extreme diversity of the food industries, the preparation processes can be divided into handling and storage of raw materials, extraction, processing, preservation and packaging. Manipulation of the raw materials, the ingredients during processing and the finished products is varied and diverse.
Mechanical handling may involve: self-propelled in-plant transport with or without palletization or super or bulk sacks often containing several thousand pounds of dry powder material ; conveyor belts e.
Storage of raw materials is most important in a seasonal industry e. It is usually done in silos, tanks, cellars, bins or cold stores. Storage of the finished products varies according to their nature liquid or solid , the method of preserving and the method of packaging loose, in sack or super sack, in bundles, boxes or bottles ; and the respective premises must be planned to suit the conditions of handling and preserving traffic aisles, ease of access, temperature and humidity suited to product, cold-storage installations.
Commodities may be held in oxygen-deficient atmospheres or under fumigation while in storage or just before shipment. To extract a specific food product from fruit, cereals or liquids, any of the following methods may be used: crushing, pounding or grinding, extraction by heat direct or indirect , extraction by solvents, drying and filtration.
In other cases it may be the actual extraction process, as in flour milling. Heat can be used directly as a means of preparation by extraction, as in roasting e. Oils can be extracted equally well by combining and mixing the crushed fruit with solvents that are later eliminated by filtering and reheating. The separation of liquid products is carried out by centrifuging turbines in a sugar refinery or by filtering through filter presses in breweries and in oil and fat production.
Operations in processing food products are extremely varied and can be described only after individual study of each industry, but the following general procedures are used: fermentation, cooking, dehydration and distillation. Fermentation, obtained usually by addition of a micro-organism to the previously prepared product, is practiced in bakeries, breweries, the wine and spirits industry and the cheese products industry. Cooking occurs in many manufacturing operations: canning and preserving of meat, fish, vegetables and fruits; ready-to-serve meat-processing plants e.
In other cases, cooking is done in a vacuum-sealed container and produces a concentration of the product e. Besides the drying of products by the sun, as with many tropical fruits, dehydration can be carried out in hot air fixed dryers or drying tunnels , by contact on a drying drum heated by steam, such as in the instant-coffee industry and the tea industry , vacuum drying often combined with filtering and lyophilization freeze drying , where the product is first frozen solid and then dried by vacuum in a heated chamber.
Distillation is used in the making of spirits. The fermented liquid, treated to separate grain or fruit, is vaporized in a still; the condensed vapour is then collected as liquid ethyl alcohol.
Briefly, the first three methods destroy microbial life; the latter merely inhibit growth. Raw ingredients such as fish and meat, fruit or vegetables are taken fresh and preserved by one of the above methods, or a mixture of different foods are processed to form a product or dish, which is then preserved.
Such products include soups, meat dishes and puddings. Food preservation goes back to the last Ice Age, about 15, BC, when Cro-Magnon humans discovered for the first time a way of preserving food by smoking it. The evidence for this lies in the caves at Les Eyzies in the Dordogne in France, where this way of life is well portrayed in carvings, engravings and paintings. From then to the present day, although many methods have been used and still are, heat remains one of the principal cornerstones of food preservation.
High-temperature processes can destroy bacteria, depending on the cooking temperature and duration. Sterilization mainly used in canneries involves submitting the already canned product to the action of steam, generally in a closed container such as an autoclave or continuous cooker.
Smoking is carried out mainly on fish, ham and bacon, assuring dehydration and giving a distinctive flavor. Ionizing radiation sterilization is used heavily on spices in some countries to reduce wastage and spoilage.
However, sterilizing canned foods with radiation requires such high dosage that unacceptable flavours and odours result. Microwave sterilization is another type of electromagnetic emission that is currently finding use in the food industry. It is used for rapidly thawing raw frozen ingredients before further processing, as well as for heating frozen cooked foods in 2 to 3 minutes.
Such a method, with its low moisture content loss, preserves the appearance and flavour of the food.
Drying is a common preservation process. Sun drying is the oldest and most widely used method of food preservation. Today foodstuffs may be dried in air, superheated steam, in vacuum, in inert gas and by direct application of heat.
Many types of dryers exist, the particular type being dependent on the nature of the material, the desired form of finished product and so on. Dehydration is a process in which heat is transferred into the water in the food, which is vapourized. The water vapour is then removed.
Low-temperature processes involve storage in a cold store the temperature determined by the nature of the products , freezing and deep-freezing, which allows foodstuffs to be preserved in their naturally fresh state, by various methods of slow or rapid freezing.
With freeze drying, the material to be dried is frozen and placed in a sealed chamber. The chamber pressure is reduced and maintained at a value below 1 mm Hg. Heat is applied to the material, the surface ice heats up and the resultant water vapour is drawn off by the vacuum system. As the ice boundary recedes into the material, the ice sublimes in situ and the water percolates to the surface through the pore structure of the material.
The technology, which is difficult, is a spin-off from space travel. Open-shelf stability is achieved by suitable control of acidity, redox potential, humectants and preservatives. Most developments to date have been in foods for pet animals. Whatever the preservation process, the food to be preserved has first to be prepared.
Meat preservation involves a butchery department; fish needs cleaning and gutting, filleting, curing and so on. Before fruit and vegetables can be preserved they have to be washed, cleaned, blanched, perhaps graded, peeled, stalked, shelled and stoned. Many of the ingredients have to be chopped, sliced, minced or pressed. There are many methods of packaging food, including canning, aseptic packaging and frozen packaging. The conventional method of canning is based on the original work of Appert in France, for which in the French government awarded him a prize of 12, francs.
He preserved food in glass containers. In Dartford, England, in , Donkin and Hall set up the first cannery using tinned iron containers. Today the world uses several million tonnes of tinplate annually for the canning industry, and a substantial amount of preserved food is packed into glass jars. The process of canning consists of taking cleaned food, raw or partly cooked but not intentionally sterilized, and packing it into a can that is sealed with a lid.
The can is then heated, usually by steam under pressure, to a certain temperature for a period of time to allow penetration of the heat to the centre of the can, destroying the microbial life. The can is then cooled in air or chlorinated water, after which it is labelled and packed. Changes in processing have occurred over the years. Continuous sterilizers cause less damage to cans by impact and allow cooling and drying in a closed atmosphere. Foods can also be heat preserved in retortable pouches.
These are bags of small cross-sectional area made from laminates of aluminium and heat-sealable plastics. The process is the same as for conventional canning, but better taste properties are claimed for the products because sterilization times can be reduced. Very careful control of the retorting process is essential to avoid damage to the heat seals with subsequent bacterial spoilage.
There have been recent developments in the aseptic packaging of food. The process is fundamentally different from conventional canning. In the aseptic method the food container and closure are sterilized separately, and the filling and closing are done in a sterile atmosphere. Product quality is optimal because heat treatment of the foodstuff can be controlled precisely and is independent of the size or material of the container.
Of concern is employee exposure to the sterilizing agents. It is likely that the method will become more widely used because overall it should result in energy savings. Developments on particulate foodstuffs will follow. One likely benefit in food factories will be the reduction of noise if rigid metallic containers are replaced.
Such containers may also cause problems by contaminating preserved food with lead and tin. These are minimized by new-type two-piece containers drawn from lacquered tinplate and three-piece containers with welded instead of soldered side seams.
The frozen food industry utilizes all methods of deep-freezing fresh food at temperatures below their freezing point, thus forming ice crystals in the watery tissues. The food may be frozen raw or partially cooked e.
Food for freezing must be in prime condition and prepared under strict hygienic control.
Biosurfactants are surface active agents produced naturally by a wide variety of microorganisms, which include different strains of bacteria, fungi and yeast. Biosurfactants, also known as microbial surfactants, are amphiphilic compounds. It is the amphiphilic nature of biosurfactants that makes them excellent foaming, emulsifying and dispersing agents. They are surpassing their chemical counterparts. This can be attributed to diversity, high biodegradability, less toxicity, greater stability and ecological acceptance of biosurfactants in comparison with the chemically prepared surfactants.
Welcome to the Unit of Microbiology web site. The laboratory has developed innovative strategies in the field of biotechnological research that are related to:. The laboratory of Microbiology is consisted of experienced staff enjoying international recognition. Postgraduate students and researchers from Greece and other EU countries perform their research in the laboratory.
Microbial Lipases and Their Industrial Applications: Review
This study is the first comprehensive investigation of enzyme-producing bacteria isolated from four sludge samples primary, secondary, press and machine collected in a Kraft paper mill. Overall, 41 strains encompassing 11 different genera were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis and biochemical testing. Both biodiversity and enzymatic activities were correlated with sludge composition. Press sludge hosted the largest variety of bacterial strains and enzymatic activities, which included hydrolytic enzymes and ligninolytic enzymes. In contrast, strains isolated from secondary sludge were devoid of several enzymatic activities. Most strains were found to metabolize Kraft liquor at its alkaline pH and to decolorize industrial lignin-mimicking dyes.
Springer , 3. This volume discusses recent advancements to the age old practice of using microbial enzymes in the preparation of food. Written by leading experts in the field, it discusses novel enzymes and their applications in the industrial preparation of food to improve taste and texture, while reducing cost and increasing consistency. This book will be of interest to both researchers and students working in food technology. Obsah Industrial Enzymes for Food Applications. A Potential Enzyme for the Food Industry. An EcoFriendly Alternative.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Sally L. Brown , J. Scott Angle , Lee W. Co-utilization or blending of residuals offers a unique opportunity to develop products with particular characteristics that are able to target specific customer needs.
Enzymes have interesting applications in our biological system and act as valuable biocatalysts. Their various functions allow enzymes to develop new drugs, detoxifications, and pharmaceutical chemistry. Research Advancements in Pharmaceutical, Nutritional, and Industrial Enzymology provides emerging research on biosynthesis, enzymatic treatments, and bioengineering of medicinal waste. While highlighting issues such as structural implications for drug development and food applications, this publication explores information on various applications of enzymes in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and industrial aspects. This book is a valuable resource for medical professionals, pharmacists, pharmaceutical companies, researchers, academics, and upper-level students seeking current information on developing scientific ideas for new drugs and other enzymatic advancements. He has published 22 research papers in journals of repute and 03 book chapter in books of international publishers. Some chapters are in progress. He has also worked as reviewer and authored an international book.
Grinding Characteristics of Wheat in Industrial Mills
This guide is divided into four Sections. Section I is applicable to inspections of grain elevators; Section II applies to mill inspections; Section III is applicable to bakery inspections; and Section IV is applicable to inspections of macaroni and noodle products. Prior to conducting inspections involving any grain product manufacturer, review the general inspectional instructions in IOM Chapter 5 Establishment Inspections and particularly those in IOM Food Inspections. They consist of a pair of grooved, steel rolls rotating in opposite directions. STREAMS - The various product flows in a flour milling operation, based on various factors such as particle size, ash content, component of the wheat kernel, i. Second clear is the highest ash content. There is a variety of specialized equipment used in grain product manufacturing inspections, and specialized terminology and equipment used in the grain product industry.
Microbial enzymes: industrial progress in 21st century
Microbial lipases triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolases, EC 3. They are currently given much attention with the rapid development of enzyme technology. The chemo-, regio- and enantio-specific characteristics of lipase tends to be a focus research area for scientists and industrialists. Compared to plants and animals, microorganisms have been found to produce high yields of lipases. This review describes various industrial applications of microbial lipases in the area of food industry, oil and fat industry, detergent industry, pulp and paper industry, leather industry, textile industry, in organic synthesis, production of cosmetics and biodiesel production. This makes lipases the most widely used class of enzymes in different industrial activities through the application of bioprocess technology. The aim of this review is not to discuss every lipase described in the literature but rather to present recent information on the production, characterization and industrial application of lipases in our daily activities in order to improve our life styles.
Jensen, J. Graham and Donald L. Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table
Food Industry. Grinding of cereal seeds is due to the mechanical action of several forces: compression, shearing, crushing, cutting, friction and collision, to which seeds are subjected, depending on the design if the mill used for grinding roller mill, hammer mill, stones mill or ball mill. By applying these forces, when the mechanical resistance of the particles is exceeded, their division happens in a number of smaller particles of different sizes, geometric shapes, masses and volumes. An industrial wheat mill has several technological phases, starting with coarse grinding of seeds to fine grinding of the resulted milling products, after their sorting in fractions of different sizes.
Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. Richard H. Baltz , Arnold L. Demain , Julian E.
It is a fact that one of the basic conditions of ensuring the food safety at high levels is supplying low-risk raw materials. Producing the flour and flour products in accordance with food safety begins with obtaining safe wheat. It is stated in the notification that the flour should be produced in accordance with food safety.